On completion of this element, candidates should be able to: • explain the moral, legal and economic reasons for a health and safety management system; • discuss the principles of an effective health and safety management system with reference to appropriate examples; • outline the requirements, role, structure (implementation and monitoring) of an effective health and safety policy; • outline the role of health and safety specialists.
• International Labour Standards, Occupational Safety and Health Convention, C155, International Labour Organisation, Geneva, 1981 • International Labour Standards, Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation R164, International Labour Organisation, Geneva, 1981 Minimum hours of tuition: 15 hours.
An Introduction to Management Theories
In order to understand the concept of managing the health and safety function of an organisation, you must first have an appreciation of the different styles and theories of management that have been developed over a considerable period of time. There are many management gurus and many management theories and a study of them would be encouraged should you wish to further your own studies by undertaking your own research. That said, however, let us introduce you to some of the well-known and less obscure theories that have become established in Management. We will briefly look at five management gurus and their theories: 1. Maslow
1.1 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in his 1943 paper - A Theory of Human Motivation, and the theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training and personal development. Indeed, Maslow's ideas surrounding the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the responsibility of employers to provide a workplace environment that encourages and enables employees to fulfil their own unique potential (self-actualisation) are more relevant than ever today. Maslow was born in New York in 1908 and died in 1970, although various publications appear in Maslow's name in later years. Maslow's PhD in psychology in 1934 at the University of Wisconsin formed the basis of his motivational research, initially studying rhesus monkeys. He later moved to New York's Brooklyn College. The original five-stage Hierarchy of Needs model is clearly and directly attributable to Maslow; later versions with added motivational stages are not so clearly attributable. Each of us is motivated by needs. Our most basic needs are inborn, having evolved over tens of thousands of years. The Hierarchy of Needs helps to explain how these needs motivate us all. Physiological - the basic requirements of life.
Safety and security - the need for job security.
Belonging - the need to be part of the team, to be accepted. Esteem - the need for recognition and respect.
Self-actualisation - to reach the personal goal.
1.2 Henri Fayol
Henri Fayol's background was in mining. His book (Administration Industrielle et Generale) was first published in 1916 when he was 75. It was translated into English by Constance Storrs in 1949. He is famous for three things:
1. The six functional groups
Fayol suggested that all activities could fit into six functions:
1. Technical - production, manufacture, adaptation.
2. Commercial - buying, selling, exchange.
3. Financial - search for and optimum use of capital.
4. Security - protection of property and personnel.
5. Accounting - stocktaking, balance sheets, costs, statistics. 6. Managerial activities - planning, [prevoyance/forward thinking] organisation, command, co-ordination and control. Perhaps the one thing that may have changed since Fayol's day is the rigid notion of functions and functional boundaries. While the basis remains, the...