Statistics Unit 9
Lincoln College Online
Staci Morris

Statistics Unit 9
Page 581-584 #4, 5, 7, 15, and 18
4.) Describe the hypotheses for a two way ANOVA test.
Two way ANOVA Test will have three null hypotheses. One hypothesis will represent the independent variable, and its effects on the second hypothesis which is the dependent variable (main effect). The third null hypothesis is the interaction effect on both independent variables on the dependent variable. 5.) The table shows the cost per ounce (in dollars) for a random sample of toothpastes exhibiting very good stain removal, good stain removal, and fair stain removal. At a = 0.05, can you conclude that the mean costs per ounce are different?

a.) Hₒ: μ¹ = μ² = μᶟ
Hₐ: Claim- one mean is seen as being different from the others.
b.) Fₒ = 3.37Rejection Region F > 3.37
c.) 1.02
d.) Fail to reject the Hₒ
e.) Evidence is not enough at 5% significance level to determine if the mean cost per ounce is different. 7.) The table shows the salaries (in thousands of dollars) of randomly selected individuals from the federal, state, and local levels of government. At a = 0.01, can you conclude that at least one mean salary is different?

a.) Hₒ: μ¹ = μ² = μᶟ
Hₐ: Claim- one mean is different from the others
b.) Fₒ = 5.49Rejection Region F > 5.49
c.) 22.99
d.) Reject Hₒ
e.) There is evidence at 1% significance level to determine that at least one mean salary is different. 15.) Table shows the number of female students who played on a sports team in grades 9 through 12 for a random sample of 8 high schools in a state. At a 0.01, can you reject the claim that the mean numbers of female students who played on a sports team are equal for all grades? Analysis of Variance:

...of 1000 flights and proportions of three routes in the sample. He divides them into different sub-groups such as satisfaction, refreshments and departure time and then selects proportionally to highlight specific subgroup within the population. The reasons why Mr Kwok used this sampling method are that the cost per observation in the survey may be reduced and it also enables to increase the accuracy at a given cost.
TABLE 1: Data Summaries of Three Routes
Route 1
Route 2
Route 3
Normal(88.532,5.07943)
Normal(97.1033,5.04488)
Normal(107.15,5.15367)
Summary Statistics
Mean
88.532
Std Dev
5.0794269
Std Err Mean
0.2271589
Upper 95% Mean
88.978306
Lower 95% Mean
88.085694
N
500
Sum
44266
Summary Statistics
Mean
97.103333
Std Dev
5.0448811
Std Err Mean
0.2912663
Upper 95% Mean
97.676525
Lower 95% Mean
96.530142
N
300
Sum
29131
Summary Statistics
Mean
107.15
Std Dev
5.1536687
Std Err Mean
0.3644194
Upper 95% Mean
107.86862
Lower 95% Mean
106.43138
N
200
Sum
21430
From the table above, the total number of passengers for route 1 is 44,266, route 2 is 29,131 and route 3 is 21,430 and the total numbers of passengers for 3 routes are 94,827.
Although route 1 has the highest number of passengers and flights but it has the lowest means of passengers among the 3 routes. From...

...Statistics 1
Business Statistics
LaSaundra H. – Lancaster
BUS 308 Statistics for Managers
Instructor Nicole Rodieck
3/2/2014
Statistics 2
When we hear about business statistics, when think about the decisions that a manager makes to help make his/her business successful. But do we really know what it takes to run a business on a statistical level? While some may think that businessstatistics is too much work because it entails a detailed decision making process that includes calculations, I feel that without educating yourself on the processes first you wouldn’t know how to imply statistics. This is a tool managers will need in order to run a successful business. In this paper I will review types of statistical elements like: Descriptive, Inferential, hypothesis development and testing and the evaluation of the results. Also I will discuss what I have learned from business statistics.
My description of Descriptive statistics is that they are the numerical elements that make up a data that can refer to an amount of a categorized description of an item such as the percentage that asks the question, “How many or how much does it take to “ and the outcome numerical amount. According to “Dr. Ashram’s Statistics site” “The quantities most commonly used to measure the dispersion of the values about...

...population with a specific distribution.
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test is based on the empirical distribution function (ECDF). Given N ordereddata points Y1, Y2, ..., YN, the ECDF is defined as
\[ E_{N} = n(i)/N \]
where n(i) is the number of points less than Yi and the Yiare ordered from smallest to largest value. This is a step function that increases by 1/N at the value of each ordered data point.
The graph below is a plot of the empirical distribution function with a normal cumulative distribution function for 100 normal random numbers. The K-S test is based on the maximum distance between these two curves.
Characteristics and Limitations of the K-S TestAn attractive feature of this test is that the distribution of the K-S test statistic itself does not depend on the underlying cumulative distribution function being tested. Another advantage is that it is an exact test (the chi-square goodness-of-fit test depends on an adequate sample size for the approximations to be valid). Despite these advantages, the K-S test has several important limitations:
1. It only applies to continuous distributions.
2. It tends to be more sensitive near the center of the distribution than at the tails.
3. Perhaps the most serious limitation is that the distribution must be fully specified. That is, if location, scale, and shape parameters are estimated from the data, the critical region of the K-S test is no longer valid. It typically must be determined by simulation....

...Trajico, Maria Liticia D.
BSEd III-A2
REFLECTION
The first thing that puffs in my mind when I heard the word STATISTIC is that it was a very hard subject because it is another branch of mathematics that will make my head or brain bleed of thinking of how I will handle it. I have learned that statistic is a branch of mathematics concerned with the study of information that is expressed in numbers, for example information about the number of times something happens. As I examined on what the statement says, the phrase “number of times something happens” really caught my attention because my subconscious says “here we go again the non-stop solving, analyzing of problems” and I was right. This course of basic statistic has provided me with the analytical skills to crunch numerical data and to make inference from it. At first I thought that I will be alright all along with this subject but it seems that just some part of it maybe it is because I don’t pay much of my attention to it but I have learned many things. I have learned my lesson.
During our every session in this subject before having our midterm examination I really had hard and bad times in coping up with this subject. When we have our very first quiz I thought that I would fail it but it did not happen but after that, my next quizzes I have taken I failed. I was always feeling down when in every quiz I failed because even though I don’t like this...

...Millar
Biology statistics made simple using Excel
Biology statistics made simple using Excel
Neil Millar
Spreadsheet programs such as Microsoft Excel can transform the use of statistics in A-level science
Statistics is an area that most A-level biology students (and their teachers!) find difficult. The formulae are often complicated, the calculations tedious, degrees of freedom mysterious, and probability tables confusing. But in fact students need no longer grapple with any of these. In real life, biologists and statisticians rarely use calculation and tables these days, but instead use statistical packages such as Minitab or SPSS. But it isn’t even necessary to buy an expensive statistics package, since spreadsheet software such as Excel has most of the common statistical tests built-in. When using statistics, the first hurdle is to decide which statistical test to use. Figure 1 (overleaf) is a flow chart showing when to use the various tests described in this article. There are many other possible statistical tests, but this flow chart should be more than sufficient for A-level biology students. It briefly summarises the Excel formulae and how to interpret the results, so it can be used as a handy guide on its own once the student is familiar with the tests. This flow chart should be used when designing an experiment, not after the experiment is complete. This will ensure that...

...Major Statistics Assignment
Mary Grace Rivero
050853639
CNUR860-011
Vaska Micevski
Friday, March 30, 2012
Major Statistics Assignment
This major statistics assignment will finally pull together everything that was learned in this course. The application of all content within this course will be incorporated to three different research scenarios. Within each scenario, hypothesis testing will be done, followed by a discussion of relevant descriptive statistics and finally, a discussion of the findings which includes nursing practice implications and research implications.
Research Scenario #1
In this research scenario, the researchers were interested in the following research question: “Is there a difference in nurses’ abilities to identify nursing skills that reflect knowledge of client centered care values of A) respect and human dignity B) consistency, continuity and timelessness of care or C) patient autonomy, patient voice and patient as decision maker.” To answer this research question, a hypothesis testing will be conducted followed by a discussion of the findings. The discussion of the findings will include a discussion of descriptive statistics, followed by nursing and research implications.
Hypothesis Testing
Step 1. The first step in hypothesis testing is to state the null and research hypothesis. The null hypothesis can be: “There is no difference in the nurse’s abilities...

...new synthetic fishing line that he claims has a mean breaking strength of 8 kilograms. Test the hypothesis that the mean is 8 kg against the alternative that it is less than 8 kg, if a random sample of 50 lines is tested and found to have a mean breaking strength of 7.8 kg. The standard deviation is 0.8 kg. Use a 0.01 level of significance.
8. A trucking firm doesn’t believe the claim that the average lifetime of certain tires is at least 27,000 miles. To check the claim, the firm puts 40 of these tires on its trucks and gets a mean lifetime of 27,563 miles. Assume a standard deviation of 134.8 miles. What can it conclude if the probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis is to be at most 0.01?
9. A fire insurance company felt that the mean distance from a home to the nearest fire department in a suburb of Chicago was at least 4.7 miles. It set its fire insurance rates accordingly. Members of the community set out to show that the mean distance was less than 4.7 miles. This, they felt, would convince the insurance company to lower its rates. They randomly identified 64 homes and measured the distance to the nearest fire department for each. The resulting sample mean was 4.4. If [pic] miles, does the sample show sufficient evidence to support the community’s claim, at the 0.05 level of significance?...

...
Statistics
BUS308: Statistics for Mangers
Instructor:
Learning Statistics
Statistical data has become an item that we see all around us in our everyday lives, from television programs talking about selling products or politicians using data to show how they perform in their jobs, in hopes to be reelected. Throughout the course in Statistics for Managers, I have learned many things on how the use of statistical information can help me to understand these items and also to help me to perform my job and understand the day-to-day operation of the company. With the use of statistics, anyone can find out information and details on most anything, allowing them to understand a business better or to make better decisions in their everyday life. Because statistics is all around us, using and understanding this information is important to find answers to questions, to make better decisions, and understand how things work.
Some of the types of information I have learned to use is through the use of descriptive and inferential statistics. According to the textbook for statistics, “descriptive characteristics can provide a great economy when data sets are large. Inferential statistics are utilized when the sample’s characteristics are important for what they reveal about the entire population”. (Tanner & Youssef-Morgan, 2013) Even though there are...