Unit 6 Study Guide

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Anatomy Review Sheet – Muscles (Be sure to use the muscle notes in the lecture folder to help you complete this assignment).

1. Name the three types of muscles.

• The three types of muscles are smooth, cardiac, and skeletal.

2. What is the muscle made up of that allows for muscle contraction?

• At the end of each motor neuron there are tiny vesicles that store chemicals called neurotransmitters that stimulate the muscle to contract.

3. What is the part of #2 that extends out?

• The plate that is densely branched. This allows them to attach to many muscle fibers.

4. What is the nerve cell that connects to several muscle fibers called?

• Motor neuron.

5. There are two types of protein filaments that make up a myofibril.

1. Which one is thick? Myosin.

2. Which one is thin? Actin.

6. What are the chemicals called that stimulate the muscle to contract?

• Neurotransmitters

7. What is the specific chemical from question 6 in muscles?

• Acetylcholine.

8. Where are these chemicals stored?

• Mitochondria in the muscle cells.

9. What is the combination of the motor neuron and the muscles it controls called?

• Motor Unit.

10. What is the energy storing molecule found in the mitochondrion?

• ADP which is converted into ATP is what is found in the mitochondrion.

11. What happens if there is a lack of the chemical in the previous question?

• Muscle cramp.

12. What is the chemical that builds up in muscles caused by strenuous exercise?

• The chemical that builds up in your muscles is called lactic acid.

13. What is the pigment that causes blood to be red?

• Hemoglobin is what causes the blood to be red.

14. What is the pigment that causes muscle to be brown?

• Myoglobin....
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