Unit 4 Edexcel Btec Level 3 Subsidary Diploma

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P4 Explain two theories of aging
Disengagement Theory
This is the first formal theory of aging and it was brought forward by Elaine Cumming and William Henry in 1961, and they looked at how society views older people. During their research they found that older people disengaged from society. They argue that older personnel withdraw from society, for example they stop working/retirement, they stop socialising, they feel that they are no longer needed by wider society, for example they younger generation, the wider society does not include family and friends, and that age is a number that represents what we can and cannot do. On reflection we can see that this view is flawed because it is very dated and does not show a true picture of today’s society and views. Also this view is the total opposite of the newer activity theory. M2

Agnes is clearly part of disengagement theory because of the lifestyle she leads. She is a widow meaning that she has lost her lifelong partner and has retracted from society meaning she isn’t talking to people and staying active. She has no social life meaning that she has stopped socialising following the disengagement theory. She has also past retirement age so she isn’t staying active at work and keeping her brain mentally healthy so she is more likely to become depressed as she has retreated back into her own world. Activity Theory

Robert Havighurst shuns disengagement theory and states that we fight shrinking into our own little world. He believes that a person who manages to remain optimistic and stay active in their old age won’t retract from society for example they will remain in employment longer. He also stated that people choose what they want to do, for example regardless of age they might choose to go skydiving because they are active enough to do so. Research has shown that, if we remain active in our old age we are more likely to be mentally healthier and are less likely to suffer from depression, for example older people who engage in social activities and have a social network of friends are less likely to become depressed then those who are not engaging in social activities. However research has concluded that ill health, disabilities and widowhood all contribute to inhibiting 65+ people from remaining active within society. M2

Marion in the case study is clearly following the activity theory because she has a healthy social life and a good social network of friends and is socially active; she is of good health therefore nothing can stop her choosing to do anything she wants, she exercisers regularly therefore her body is fit and she is happier because exercise releases endorphins which is a happy hormone, she’s independent and she doesn’t have a anyone relying on her and she doesn’t have the stress of a husband or children making her a happier person overall. P5 explain the physical and psychological changes which may be associated with ageing The cardiovascular system

Age changes the blood in many ways and these include a decrease in the volume of red blood cells, it constricts the blood and it can cause blockages in the peripheral veins by a blood clot. Also, there might be pooling of blood in the veins in the legs because valves are not working effectively. Age-related changes in the heart include a reduction in cardiac output, a reduction in the elasticity of the heart’s fibrous tissues this makes them weaker, progressive atherosclerosis (fatty build-up or plaques) that can restrict circulation, and replacement of damaged cardiac muscle fibres by scar tissue, which limits expansion of the cardiac muscle. Age-related changes in blood vessels are often related to arteriosclerosis. This is a thickening and toughening of arterial walls the walls become less tolerant of sudden increases in pressure. Aging affects aerobic capacity and cardiovascular performance during exercise. Maximum exercise capacity and maximum oxygen consumption slowly decrease during the...
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