Chapter 16: Renaissance, Reformation, Absolutism & Enlightenment
1. What was the Protestant Reformation?
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519; resulted in the “protesters” forming several new Christian denominations, including Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England
How did Martin Luther promote the ideas of the Reformation?
Posted a 95-page thesis on the door of the Church of Wittenberg
People everywhere used Luther’s ideas to help form their own ideas about God and to start their own
Wrote about separating political power form church power
Declared the Christian belief should be based on the word of God in the Bible and on Christian tradition
Used printing press to spread ideas
How did Calvinism differ from Lutheranism?
Calvinism – denied the Lutheranism teaching that human faith alone could merit salvation
Calvinism teaching – salvation was a gift from God that he gave to “predestined” people
Calvin curtailed power of clerical hierarchy and simplified religious rituals
Calvinists elected own governing committees and created regional and national council to regulate doctrinal issues
Calvinists displayed simplicity in dress, life and worship; avoided high living and stripping churches of statues, most
musical instruments, stained-glassed windows, incense, and vestments
How was the English Reformation different?
2. What was the Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation?
They were shaken by it
Created Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
Created Catholic Reformation - clarified Catholic theology and reformed clerical training and discipline
How did King Philip II of Spain try to enforce religious orthodoxy?
He used Inquisition – suspected Protestants were accused of heresy, some punished by death
3. Who founded the Jesuit order (Society of Jesus)?
Spanish nobleman Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)
4. What prompted the scientific revolution?
How did scientist explain the workings of the universe?
5.What was the Enlightenment, and why was it called that?
A philosophical movement in the 18th century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering
Rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics
6. How did marriage patterns in early modern Europe differ from those found elsewhere?
Had arranged marriages just as everyone else, except young men and women often chose their own spouses
Privileged families were more likely to have arranged marriages than poor families
People married later than other people in cultural regions
7. Why were women not a greater part of the cultural movements of early modern Europe?
Most schools, guilds, and professions barred female students
Females were less likely to be educated
Even though they weren’t a big part of cultural movements, they were still more prominent than in other parts of the world
8.How did the Dutch East and West Indies Company gain financial supremacy in Europe?
How did the English manage to overcome the Dutch trade monopoly?
9.What was a joint stock company?
A business that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread the risks and profits among
10.Which family ruled the Holy Roman Empire?
Habsburg family of Austria
11. What was the Peace of Augsburg?
A political settlement between Catholics and Lutherans on the division of Christianity between the two faiths
It stated that the religion of a particular...