HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT UNIT 4
* definitions of developed and developing countries according to WHO, including high/low mortality strata
Developing countries are defined as those countries that have not achieved significant industrial growth relative to increase in population and GDP remains relatively low. As a result, standard of living is low and formal structures such as governments and education are often unstable. (e.g.: Sierra Leone, South Africa, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and Bolivia)
Developed countries are defined as those that have medium to high standards of living facilitated by well-established governments and stable economic growth with a high GDP per capita; often described as ‘industrialised’. (e.g.: Australia, Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States of America)
The broad category classification method is a way of describing the development of a country based on mortality patterns, geography and economic + demographic development. All countries Developed (Australia, USA, Europe, Canada) (strata A) Low-mortality developing (China, Jamaica, Mexico, Indonesia) (strata B + C) High-mortality developing (Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Pakistan, Zimbabwe) (strata D+E)
Purpose: it allows WHO to put countries at similar stages of overall development into the same categories which can be used to guide policies and interventions aimed at improving the overall level of development being experienced in each country.
The WHO regions are another way of classifying countries, which is based on geographical location as well as political consideration. 1. African Region (Kenya, Ethiopia)
2. Regions of Americas (Canada, USA)
3. Eastern Mediterranean Region (Iraq, Jordan, Afghanistan)
4. European Region (U.K, Germany, Hungary)
5. South-East Asian Region (India, Thailand)
6. Western Pacific region (Australia, NZ, PNG)
It’s important to note that the WHO region groupings do not take into account levels of development and as a result, each region is likely to include both developed and developing nations.
The WHO mortality strata is a way of describing the development of a country based on child and adult mortality rates. Strata A – Very low child mortality, very low adult mortality (Australia, Japan, Sweden, USA, UK) Strata B – Low child mortality, low adult mortality (China, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Indonesia, Mexico) Strata C – Low child mortality, high adult mortality (Russian Federation, Ukraine) Strata D – High child mortality, high adult mortality (Afghanistan, Iraq, Morocco, Pakistan, Sudan, Yemen) Strata E – High child mortality, very high adult mortality (Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique)
Purpose: allows countries to be put with other countries experiencing similar health outcomes, whereby health campaigns and interventions can then be devised for each strata.
* definitions of sustainability and human development according to the UN, including the human development index;
Sustainability is ‘meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’ (UN, 1992).
Important to consider sustainability in a modern context – beyond the traditional notion of environmental sustainability as sustainable human development is reliant upon social, economic and environmental stability.
Sustainable development means meeting today’s needs and planning the countries growth without creating problems or depleting resources for future generations. For development to be sustainable, it has to be equitable. Relying on fisheries and oil reserves for income is not sustainable (will run out). An example of social sustainability is making sure information is passed down (education) before an elder dies in rural village (/building bridges, etc).
Human development is ‘creating an environment in which people can develop to their full potential and lead productive, creative...