Unit 4

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Unit 4 assignment LO1.1, 1.2, 1.3
PHYSICAL ABUSE
Physical abuse is where a person sets out to deliberately hurt another causing actual bodily harm. Forms of abuse could be any or all of the following: •Hitting
Pinching
Slapping
Kicking
Pulling hair
Biting
Pushing
Tripping someone up/over
Strangling
Hitting with an object
Cutting
burning
Someone who is being physically abused may show signs of it but could be hiding it so as not to draw attention to themselves. The abuser/s may have told the victim things to ensure the abusers name isn’t divulged to anyone. Signs and symptoms associated with physical abuse could be:

Black eyes
Bite marks
Bald patches on the scalp
Bruises
Burns
Unexplained marks
Sometimes, the signs are not so easy to pick up on. The individual maybe scared for what seems to be an unknown reason, may gradually withdraw from activities that they had previously enjoyed participating in and also may begin to suffer with depression and anxiety.

SEXUAL ABUSE
Sexual abuse is forcing someone, without their consent, to take part in a sexual act. There are numerous forms of sexual abuse. Listed below are some forms of it. •Sexual touching on any body part, clothed or unclothed

Sexually suggestive statements
Non-consensual, forced physical sexual behaviour
Sexual kissing, fondling
Indecent exposure
Involving a vulnerable adult in pornography
Penetration or attempted penetration of intimate areas
Masturbation
Rape
Participating in sexual acts to which a vulnerable adult has not consented, or could not consent, or was pressured into consenting Some physical signs of sexual abuse are:
Bruises/scratches/burns/bite marks to the body
Scratches/abrasions or persistent infections in the anal/genital regions •Pregnancy
Recurrent urinary/genital infections
Blood or marks on underwear
Abdominal pain with no diagnosable cause

Some behavioural signs of sexual abuse are:
Provocative sexual behaviour/promiscuity
Prostitution
Sexual abuse of others
Aggression/anxiety/tearfulness
Frequent masturbation
Refusal to undress for activities such as swimming/bathing •Behaviour that invites exploitation and further physical/sexual abuse

PSYCHOLOGICAL ABUSE
All forms of abuse also have an element of psychological abuse. Any situation which means that someone becomes the victim of abuse at the hands of someone they trust is, inevitably, going to cause emotional distress. However, some abuse is purely psychological-there are no physical, sexual or financial elements involved. Some signs of psychological abuse are:

Emotional abuse
Bullying
Controlling
Blaming
Verbal abuse e.g. shouting/swearing
Harassment
Intimidation
Humiliation
Deprivation of contact with others
Ignoring
Some signs or indicators of psychological abuse are:
Fearfulness
Self-blaming
Heightened defence of others
Avoiding eye contact
Anxiety
Depression
Telling lies
SELF NEGLECT
Self-neglect is a behavioural condition where an individual fails to attend to their basic needs. People neglect their own care for a range of reasons; the most common are: •Physical illness or disability

Mentally ill/mental health problems
Sensory loss or difficulty
Learning difficulties/disabilities
Alcohol and drug misuse problems
A different set of priorities/perspectives
This could in turn lead to them jeopardizing their wellbeing leading them to have poor personal hygiene, going without food & tending to any medical condition they have which would lead them to eventually fall ill. Signs and symptoms of self-neglect are:

Hazardous/unsafe living conditions
Inappropriate/inadequate clothing
Lack of necessary medical aids
Dehydration/ malnutrition
Inadequate medical care/not taking prescribed...
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