Unit 302 Schools as Organisations

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Unit 302
1.2
Mainstream state schools
All children in England between the ages of five and 16 are entitled to a free place at a state school. Most go to state schools. Children normally start primary school at the age of four or five, but many schools now have a reception year for four year olds. Children normally leave at the age of 11, moving on to secondary school. Most state schools admit both boys and girls, though some are single-sex. The four main types of state school all receive funding from local authorities. They all follow the National Curriculum and are regularly inspected by Ofsted. Community schools

A community school is run by the local authority, which:
employs the staff
owns the land and buildings
decides which ‘admissions criteria’ to use (these are used to allocate places if the school has more applicants than places) Community schools look to develop strong links with the local community. They can do this in a number of ways, including providing use of their facilities, or providing services like childcare and adult learning classes. Foundation and Trust schools

Foundation schools are run by their own governing body, which employs the staff and sets the admissions criteria. Land and buildings are usually owned by the governing body or a charitable foundation. A Trust school is a type of foundation school which forms a charitable trust with an outside partner. For example, a business or educational charity aiming to raise standards and explore new ways of working. The decision to become a Trust school is taken by the governing body, with parents having a say. Voluntary-aided schools

Voluntary-aided schools are mainly religious or 'faith' schools, although anyone can apply for a place. As with foundation schools, the governing body: employs the staff
sets the admissions criteria
School buildings and land are normally owned by a charitable foundation, often a religious organisation. The governing body contributes to building and maintenance costs. Voluntary-controlled schools

Voluntary-controlled schools are similar to voluntary aided schools, but are run by the local authority. As with community schools, the local authority: employs the school's staff
sets the admissions criteria
School land and buildings are normally owned by a charity, often a religious organisation, which also appoints some of the members of the governing body. State schools with particular characteristics

Within the state schools system described above, there are a number of schools with particular characteristics. As with other state schools, admissions are coordinated by the local authority. However, some may have different admission criteria or funding arrangements. Academies

Academies are independently managed, all-ability schools. They are set up by sponsors from business, faith or voluntary groups in partnership with the Department for Education (DfE) and the local authority. Together they fund the land and buildings, with the government covering the running costs. City Technology Colleges

These are independently managed, non-fee-paying schools in urban areas for pupils of all abilities aged 11 to 18. They are geared towards science, technology and the world of work, offering a range of vocational qualifications as well as GCSEs and A levels. Community and foundation special schools

Special schools cater for children with specific special educational needs. These may include physical disabilities or learning difficulties. Faith schools
Faith schools are mostly run in the same way as other state schools. However, their faith status may be reflected in their religious education curriculum, admissions criteria and staffing policies. Grammar schools

Grammar schools select all or most of their pupils based on academic ability. Maintained boarding schools
Maintained boarding schools offer free tuition, but charge fees for board and lodging. Independent schools
There are around 2,300 independent schools in...
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