Child development progresses from head to toe. Starting from the top of the body and gradually moving downwards. Firstly, they gain control over muscles which are close to the head, and then moving outwards so the large muscles in arms, upper arms develop and the legs last. By 6 months a child should be able to turn their head toward sounds, voices and movement, watch the adult’s face when being fed, smile when recognizes a familiar face, reach up to hold feet when lying on the back, look and reach for objects, hold and shake a rattle as well as put everything in the mouth. By 12 months a child should be able to roll over from the tummy onto the back, sit alone, begin to crawl or shuffle on their bottom, pull on or push against adult hands or furniture to reach a standing position, raise arms in order to be lifted, turn and look up when hear the name, pat and poke objects when playing, pass objects from hand to hand, look for things which have been dropped and reach hand towards a source of food. By 24 months a child should be able to feed itself, start to walk, push and pull toys while walking, wave goodbye, point and make noises to indicate what it wants, enjoy a picture book, shake head for ‘no’, crawl upstairs, stoop to pick things of the floor, begin to show preference for one hand, build a small tower and uses grasp to hold crayons. By 36 months a child should be able to throw, kick a ball, build larger towers out of bricks, pour liquids, kneel to play and use a pencil to make marks and circular scribbles.
Social and Emotional
Throughout the early years children are starting to socialize and understand emotions of others. By the age of 3 months children should be able to respond to adults especially mothers face and voice, smile, when feeding concentrate on adults face and are very dependant on adults for reassurance and comfort – quietens when held and cuddled. By the age of 9 months children should be able to show affection to known carer but shy with strangers and enjoy company of others and games like peek-a-boo. By the age of 24 months children should be able to play alongside other children, be mostly cooperative, can be distracted from unwanted behaviour, use comfort objects, become anxious or distressed if separated from known adults and probaby will like to please adults and to perform for an audience. By the age of 36 months children should be able to develop sense of own identity, want to do things for themselves, demand adults attention and being jelaous of attention given to others, reluctant to share, have bursts of emotion tantrums, enjoy playing with adult or older children who will give attention and be able to play with others of own age for short period.
Between the age of 0-3 children are beginign to realise that others are separate beings from themselves, children will often imitate others and try out ways of behaving in play, and will become a bit more confident with time but will still need a lot of adult reassurance. Children at this age will start to develop their ‘schemas’. Jean Piaget thought that children learn by creating new ‘schemas’ in their head. A good example of schemas according to Kendra Cherry is “For example, a young child may first develop a schema for a horse. She knows that a horse is large, has hair, four legs and a tail. When the little girl encounters a cow for the first time, she might initially call it a horse. After all, it fits in with her schema for the characteristics of a horse; it is a large animal that has...