Unit 3 Growth & Heredity Final Exam Review & Study Guide

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11. What is the structure of a DNA molecule?
a. What forms the backbone of the DNA molecule?
b. What kind of bonds occur between the 3' OH on the 3’ C of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next?
b. What forms the “steps of the ladder”?
c. What kind of bonds hold the nitrogen bases together?
d. What is meant by anti-parallel strands?
12. What is Chargaff’s rule (what binds with what?)
13. How does DNA fold into a chromosome? (the 6 steps)
14. What is a nucleosome?
15. What are histones?
16. What is the difference between chromatin and chromosomes?
When do cells use these different forms?
REPLICATION, TRANSCRIPTION, and TRANSLATION
1. What is the difference between REPLICATION, TRANSCRIPTION, and TRANSLATION? Where does each process take place in the cell?
2. Define semi-conservative replication.
3. How is DNA read and made? From what end to what end?
4. What is the job of these enzymes: DNA polymerase? Helicase? Primase? Ligase? 5. What are the 3 kinds of RNA? What roles do each play in making proteins? 6. What molecule is read and what molecule is made in transcription? 7. What is a promoter?

8. What are introns? Exons?
9. What molecule is read and what molecule is made in translation? 10. What is the job of RNA polymerase?
11 . What is a codon? An anticodon?
-Be able to use an codon table to determine the amino acid sequence if given an mRNA message.- 12. What happens in TRANSLATION?
How do the 3 kinds of RNA work together to complete this process? 13. What are the monomers of proteins? What bond holds the monomers of a protein together? 14. What is the structure of an amino acid? Draw It.

15. What is the significance of the start and stop codons? How many of each?

Midterm → End of Unit

WHAT SHOULD I KNOW ABOUT…
DNA Mutation, Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Meiosis, Mendelian Genetics Patterns of Inheritance, Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Review/Use the following:
Vocab lists, ISN Pages, Practice Questions, Lectures, Book Chapters 12, 9, 10, 11

Mutations
1. What is a mutation?
2. Explain the relationship between mutations and genetic variation in species. 3. Explain why the structure of a protein is important to how the protein functions. 4. List and differentiate between the two types of substitution mutations. 5. List and differentiate between the two types of frameshift mutations. 6. How are substitution (point) mutations different from frameshift mutations? 7. Why are mutations at the beginning of a gene more damaging than at the end? 8. Explain how DNA mutations do not lead to differences in the protein that is created. 9. Which mutation leads to a stop codon insertion?

Cell Cycle/ Mitosis:
---Be able to use these vocab words
(spindle, centromere, chromatid, centrioles, chromatin, chromosomes, cell plate, cleavage furrow, centrosome, homologous chromosomes, etc) 1. What is the order of the phases in the cell cycle

2. What happens in each of the phases?
(Ex: chromosomes line up in middle of cell = metaphase; make molecules and organelles & grow bigger = G2) 3. Which of the following are identical and which are similar but not identical-- chromatids, homologous chromosomes? 4. What phases make up interphase?

5. What are the phases that make up mitosis (cell division)? 6. Which phase are cells in most of the time?
7. What is G0 and Give an example of a cell in G0.
8. Why is telophase called “reverse prophase”?
---Be able to identify the different phases in a picture/diagram.---- 9. How is cytokinesis different in plant and animal cells?
10. How is DNA different in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
11. How is cell division different in prokaryotes and eukaryotes? (binary fission/mitosis) 12. Which organelle provides the energy for moving chromosomes? (Hint: makes energy for entire cell) 13. What is DNA overload?

14. For what 3 reasons might a cell use mitosis and indicate whether the organism is single or multi-cellualr? 15. How is...
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