‘Nutrition and the effects on health’.
This booklet will contain:
What nutrients are and how they affect our body, malnutrition, deficiency etc. The guidelines which determine nutritional health including dietary reference values (DRV), what a balanced diet is and how to maintain this, what BMI is and how to calculate it, the eat well plate, I will explain possible influences on dietary intake, assess how these influences may affect the nutritional health of individuals and I will also make realistic recommendations for minimising the impact of negative influences on individuals in a specific health and social care setting.
SECTION ONE: NUTRITIONAL HEALTH
Nutrition is the science of food. It is about the nutrients in foods and how the body uses those nutrients. It includes the process of ingestion, digestion, absorption, metabolism, transport, storage and excretion of nutrients. It also includes the environmental, psychological and behavioural aspects of food and eating. The six food groups of nutrients include: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water. Good nutrition consists of a good well balanced diet combined with regular physical activity. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, make you more prone to diseases, health problems i.e. obesity and impaired physical and mental development. Malnutrition is a serious condition that happens when a person’s diet does not contain enough nutrients to meet the demands of their body. This can affect growth, physical health, mood, behaviour and many of the functions of the body. You can become malnourished if your diet does not contain the right balance of nutrients. Being malnourished does not always mean that you are thin or underweight. It is possible to eat a diet high in calories but containing few vitamins and minerals. This means you can become malnourished, even though you might also be overweight or obese. Malnutrition is a common health problem. A study carried out in 2009 found that there were 2 million people who were malnourished in the UK and a further 3 million people who were at risk of becoming malnourished. Around one in four people who are admitted to hospital in the UK are found to be malnourished. Obesity is a term used to describe somebody who is very overweight with a high amount of body fat. There are a number of ways a person’s weight can be taken. The most used method is body mass index. The body mass index (BMI) is your weight in kilograms divided by your height in metres squared. Being obese increases your risk of developing a number of serious and potentially life-threatening diseases such as: type 2 diabetes, heart disease, some types of cancer such as breast cancer, colon cancer and strokes. Obesity occurs when a person consumes more calories than he or she burns. For many people obesity happens due to eating too much and exercising too little. There are other factors that also play a role in obesity. These may include: Age: As you get older, your body's ability to metabolize food slows down and you don’t need as many calories to maintain a healthy weight. Gender: Women tend to be more overweight than men. Men have a higher resting metabolic rate (meaning they burn more energy at rest) than women, so men require more calories to maintain their body weight. Environmental factors: Environmental factors include lifestyle behaviours such as what a person eats and how active the person is. Also it depends on access if you live in the country side with no car you’re going to have limited access whereas if you live in a town centre you will have good access. Physical activity: Active people need more calories than less active people to maintain a healthy weight. Physical activity tends to decrease appetite in obese people. Psychological factors: Psychological factors also influence eating habits and obesity. Many people eat in response to negative emotions such as boredom,...