1.1 & 1.2 Define type of abuse, and the signs and/ symptoms associated with each type of abuse.
Physical abuse is where someone is causing physical harm to another. This could be hitting, pushing, slapping, pinching, kicking, scalding, restraint, misuse of medication and other things causing harm. Signs or this would be unexplainable; red marks and bruising, cuts and grazes, burns, weight loss, finger marks, fractures, scratches, pressure ulcers and sores and/ rashes from wet/soiled bedding. The person being abused would also have behavioural changes, health deterioration with our obvious cause. Sexual abuse is when someone does not give consent to take part in any form sexual activity. Signs of this could be pregnancy, bruising, scratches, bites on body and in anal/genital area. Recurring UITs, blood or marks in underwear, self-harming, itching/ irritation in genital area. Abdominal pain, without explainable cause. The person may also become withdrawn, behaviour changes, tearful, poor concentration, reluctance to be alone with a certain member of the staff team. Emotional/psychological abuse, all forms of abuse can form psychological abuse. Also bullying, treats of harm, harassment, verbal abuse, controlling, blaming, intimidation, swearing, deprivation of privacy or dignity. Signs of this would be withdrawal, isolation, behavioural changes, self-neglect, weight loss, and change in eating habits. Financial abuse is where someone is exploiting another’s money. This could be fraud, theft, pressure in connection with; wills, property, inheritance or financial transactions. And also misuse of property, possessions or benefits. Signs of the type of abuse are: people not being allowed to manage their own finances, them not being informed of what is being spent, family unwilling to pay for clothing or funds for services although persons has significant money, A person as very few or no personal possessions, Unexplained disappearance of personal possessions or property. Institutional abuse is abuse that is usually within a care setting, like a residential home. It is an establishment that is run to the convenience of the staff and management. Signs of this would be people would not have a choice in the day to day running, like mealtimes, bedtimes and when to get up. There is no freedom or going out is limited, dignity and privacy is not respected, inappropriate use of medication, access to advice and advocacy is restricted or not allowed.
1.3 Describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse. Factors that are known to contribute to the risk of harm and abuse form family, friends and carers are: poor communication between the cared for person and the member of family, friend or carer, this could be for medical reasons or a social or relationship issue, Challenging behaviour from the person under care. The carer, family member or the friend is young or immature, Someone that is drug or alcohol dependant, thinking that the person under care is deliberately being difficult and uncooperative, Carer not having enough sleep, someone being violent towards the carer. All of these are factors that contribute towards abuse. 2.1 Explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that an individual is being abused. 2.2 Explain the actions to take if an individual alleges that they are being abused. 2.3 Identify ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved. If someone alleges that they are being abused you must ensure you believe what is being said and to reassure that person. When this person it telling you this information you must not ask leading questions. When this person says they are being abused you must use your communication and listening skills. You should give this person time to explain what they are saying and keep reassuring them. You should never tell them that you will keep this a secret, you must tell them what is going to happen and that only a select few...
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