Unit 2- Development from conception to age 16 years
By Claire Williamson
E1:Describe the development of children in a selected age range and in two areas of development.
Birth to three years, physical development and social and emotional development.
Throughout the first year of life, babies will undergo rapid social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development. Motor control develops from the head, moves down through the arms and then to the legs and feet. Initial movements are reflexive in nature, such as turning the head to the side when the cheek is stroked, which aids in feeding. Babies will start to turn their heads from side to side when lying on the back or belly,this will happen around one month. At three months a baby can start lifting up its head and chest up when lying on its belly. Children generally learn to walk anywhere between seven and sixteen months of age. But before a baby will walk they will most likely engage in some pre-walking behaviours such as pushing up from the floor, rocking on their stomach, pulling up into a sitting position or scooting on their bum and crawling on all fours.
The following average ages of motor milestone achievement come from a 1996 study by the World Health Organization. average age at which infants sat without support was 6 months. average age for standing with support was 7.6 months.
Infants in the study crawled on hands and knees at 8.5 months. Walking with assistance occurred at 9.2 months.
The average age of an infant who achieved standing alone was 11 months.
E2: Describe the development of children in a selected age range, different from E1 and in two areas of development.
Three to seven years, physical development,social and emotional development.
From the age of three a child starts to have violent emotions such as anger, they will start to have different facial expressions of anger, sorrow, and joy. The child will become self-sufficient in many routines of home life and will become affectionate toward parents. They will start to feel a sense of guilt and having a responsibility and will feel pride in accomplishment. Between the age of three to seven years years children are able to carry out more co-ordinate movements and growing in confidence as a result. They have more control over fine motor skills such as cutting, writing and drawing. They will also have more confidence in activities, such as running, hopping, kicking a ball.
Between three to four years, for the child it is the beginning of their identification. They will become very intensely curious and will find an interest in other children's bodies so they will begin to practice sex role activities. A child will become dependent so they will start to rely on a person for support or supply what is needed. They will also become clingy with the parents and won't want them to leave them and will often get upset if they leave them. Children will start to get possessive over toys and they will become so possessive that they won't let other children play with their toys.
E3: Explain two theoretical perspectives relevant to the areas of development.
Piaget’s theory is based on the idea that the developing child builds cognitive structures, schemes, or networked concepts for understanding and responding to physical experiences within his or hers environment. Piaget’s theory identifies four developmental stages and the processes by which children progress through them. This four stages are: Sensorimotor stage (birth – 2 years old)–The child, through physical interaction with his or her environment, builds a set of concepts about reality and how it works.
Pre operational stage (ages 2-7)–The child is needs concrete physical situations.
Concrete operations (ages 7-11)–As physical experience accumulates, the child starts to convince by creating logical structures that explain his or her...
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