Unit TDA 2.5: Schools as Organisations
1.1 Identify the main types of state and independent schools All children aged 5-16 are entitled to a free place at a state school and most families take up this place. Schools across England are funded and managed in different ways and will vary depending on the age of the child. There are four types of mainstream state schools funded by local authorities which are known as maintained schools. They all follow the National Curriculum and are inspected by Ofsted (the government’s Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills). Community schools are run by the local education authority (LEA), which employs the school staff, owns the land and buildings and sets the entrance criteria, for example catchment area, or admissions policy, that decide which children are eligible for a place. The LEA also supports the school by looking to make links with the local community and developing the use of school facilities, for example by holding adult education or childcare classes. Foundation and Trust schools:
* Foundation Schools are run by a governing body which employs the staff and sets the entrance criteria. Land and buildings are owned either by the governing body or by a charitable foundation. The governing body will also determine the admission policy by consulting the LEA. * Trust schools are similar, but are run together with an outside body – usually a business or charity – which has formed an educational trust. Trust schools usually have to buy in their own support services. The decision to become a trust school is made by a consultation with the parents from the governing body. Voluntary Schools:
* Voluntary Aided Schools Voluntary-aided schools are mainly religious or faith schools but can be attended by children from any religion. Just like foundation schools, the governing body employs the staff and sets the entrance criteria. School buildings and land are usually owned by a charity, often a church. * Voluntary-controlled schools Voluntary-controlled schools are a cross between community and voluntary-aided schools. The local authority employs the staff, provides support services and sets the entrance criteria, like a community school, but the school land and buildings are owned by a charity, often a church or religious organisation, which also appoints some members of the governing body. In addition to state schools there are also independent schools which children can attend in the UK. Independent Schools Some parents choose to pay for a place at an independent school. Independent schools can also be called a private, or sometimes, public school. Parents pay fees towards the cost of running an independent school and are therefore set apart from the LEA as they are not funded by them. Independent schools can also receive funding via income from investments or charitable donations. As a result nearly half of independent schools have a charitable status and can claim tax exemption. Independent Schools do not have to follow the National Curriculum but must register with the Department for Education (DfE) so that they can be monitored. They are usually inspected by the Independent Schools Inspectorate (ISI) rather than Ofsted. Free Schools and Academies:
Academies are independently managed schools set up by sponsors from business, faith or voluntary groups in partnership with the local authority. They fund the land and their own school buildings. Free Schools are normally brand-new schools set up by teachers, charities, community or faith groups, universities and groups of parents where there is parental demand. They will be set up as Academies and will be funded in the same way, directly from central government. They also share with Academies a greater control over their finances, the curriculum, and teachers' pay and conditions. Special schools Pupils at a special school have usually been assessed and given a statement of special...
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