Unit 10 – Assessment 4 - Child Abuse.

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Unit 10 – Assessment 4
P4 – Describe the signs and symptoms of child abuse.
Most children are not at risk of abuse in their family homes however there are situations that increase the risk. However stresses and strains on the family can cause one or both of the parents to react in anger and take it out on the child. It is usually the most vulnerable or the youngest member of the family unit who is the victim of the abuse. Abuse is usually as a result of the parents having bad parenting skills or not having an attachment in the family. Sign and Symptoms of Abuse

It can be easy to tell which accidents are accidental and which are non-accidental for example, places such as: nose, forehead, crown, chin, bony spine, elbows, forearm, hip, knees, palm of the hand and shins are all accidental injuries. However the following are non-accidental: * Eyes bruising black (particularly both eyes)

* Skull fracture, bruising or bleeding under skull (from shaking) * Cheek/side of face bruising, finger marks
* Ears pinch or slap marks, bruising
* Mouth torn frenulum
* Neck bruising, grasp marks
* Shoulders bruising, grasp marks
* Upper and inner arms bruising or grasp marks
* Genitals bruising
* Chest bruising, grasp marks
* Knees grasp marks
* Back, buttocks, thighs linear bruising, outline of belt/buckles or scalds/burns Some long term effects to a victim of child abuse can include: (Source: https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/long_term_consequences.cfm#physical) Physical Health Consequences

* Bleeding in the eyes or in the brain can be a result of parents or carers shaking the young baby. Damage to the spinal cord or neck and rib or bone fractures can also be a result of this action. * In some cases child abuse or neglect can cause the child to develop impaired brain development due to parts of the brain not developing properly. This can have long term affects on the person’s cognitive, language and academic ability. * Many studies have shown that those who have been abused or neglected as a child grown up to suffer with issues such as allergies, arthritis, bronchitis, high blood pressure and ulcers. Psychological Consequences

Abuse and neglect has many immediate emotional effects on the victim such as isolation, fear and an inability to trust. But these can then lead to lifelong issues such as; low self esteem, depression and relationship difficulties. * Depression and withdrawal symptoms are common among children who are as young as three who have experienced emotional, physical or environmental neglect. * Poor mental and emotional health has been seen in as many as 80% of young adults who had been abused as children have met the diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder at the age of 21. These young adults have suffered with illness’ such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders and suicide attempts. * Children who have been a victim of abuse or neglect often develop anti-social traits as they grow up. This can cause them issue in school life, both academically and socially. P5 - Describe appropriate responses where child abuse is suspected or confirmed, making reference to current legislations and policies. Most settings where children are the main service users will have an action plan of what to do when or if a child was to imply or give the impression they were being neglected or abused at home. Ten point action plan

* Gain evidence or accurate information
* Write it down (record it) and share with manager or person in charge of safeguarding (follow procedures) * Tell the child you cannot keep what they have told you a secret * Reassure them and tell them they have done the correct thing by telling someone. * Do not ask leading questions such as “where did he hurt you?” Don’t influence their answer. * Inform parents, or if the parents are the suspected abusers the investigating officers will inform them. * Initial...
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