Unethical Behavior

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Chapter 2

Literature Review

Introduction

Ethics in business has been asserted to be the most important problem facing American companies today. The issue of unethical behavior has recently become the focus of media attention in wake of scandals in companies such as Enron, WorldCom, and Tyco International. (Chen and Tang, 2006).

The organization is one of the biggest influences on ethics in the work place. Organizations do affect ethical behaviors. One of the main sources that affect behavior in organizations is the commitment of management to ethical practices and behavior. Such commitment can be communicated in a code of conduct or code of ethics document. . A code of ethics is a formal statement of values and ethical standards. The code of conduct document explicitly defines ethical and unethical behavior and therefore identifies the consequences of unethical practices. (Schemer horn, 2008, p. 42).

Attitude

Personal mindset

According to Fritzsche, 2005, peers influence on ethical behavior. They are easily influenced to do what is done by their colleagues. Most theorists consider that the key responsibility of an embedded power group is to challenge the assumptions which comprise the group's own mindset. According to these commentators, power groups which fail to review or revise their mindsets with sufficient regularity cannot hold power indefinitely, as a single mindset is unlikely to possess the flexibility and adaptability needed to address all future events.

Time theft

According to Chen and Tang, 2006 Unethical behavior by employees includes things such as wasting company time, using company supplies for personal use, property theft, failing to whistle blow, illegitimately exchanging company resources for personal gain, and deceiving customers or clients. The prevalence of ethical misconduct in the workplace, there is a paucity of empirical research examining the antecedents of these behaviors.

According to Christine A.Henle, Charlie L.Reeve and Virgina E.Pihs, 2010, stealing time at work, attitudes, social, pressure and perceived control as time theft. Time theft a common and costly from of ethical misconduct at work. Examples of time theft by employees is arriving late, leaving earlier from work schedule, taking additional or longer breaks than acceptable and on the job day-dreaming. It can impact on individuals in workplace who commit time theft such as less productive and may results in strained relationships with their supervisor and coworkers.

Theft

According to Jenna M Aker, 2009, Theft in the workplace is more common than you might realize -- and people are not talking about stolen lunches. Cash, computers, and even identities could be snatched from right under your nose and the results can be devastating. Common items stolen in an office environment include items of value, like iPods, PDAS, and laptops; items of convenience, like pens, envelopes, CD-Rs, and other

Grapevine

According to Diane Kuban, Kendra Coleman and Michael Baber, 2006, Unethical behavior conduct in office organization based on attitude is grapevine. Grapevine is known as the informal transmission of information, gossip, or rumor from person to person or usually unrevealed source of confidential information and did not give any benefit to the company. But grapevine hold the strength to control office worker in the nature of power communication manager tend to compromise with person which have control over the grapevine because this person seems to be close with the other employees. Office gossip is often used by an individual to place them at a point where they can control the flow of information and therefore gain maximum advantage.

Behavior of others

According to Nancy K.Keith, 2009, unethical behavior is influence by behavior of other. It is about observing other behavior can cause unethical behavior because workers tend to emulate the action of other employee such...
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