An organisation is a human construct, made by people. It is not built by bricks and stones, or by furniture and fixtures, or by plants and machiner y alone. It is the people who make or mar an organisation. A group of people travelling in a bus from one place to another, a group of people watching a movie for three hours, a large number of people attending an election campaign speech of a political leader do not form an organisation. They form a crowd or a mob. An organisation requires people with purpose, goals and objectives. Thus, comprehensively we can say that:
“An organisation is a group of people working together to achieve the common organisational goal (viz. production of goods or ser vices with the help of the given resources i.e. people, machines and materials).”
Some examples of an organisation are: family, school, college, cricket team, foot-ball team, hockey team, university, factor y, bank, hospital, hotel, municipal corporation, a state electricity board, a water supply board, telephone exchange, government, army, navy, air force, etc.
1.2 Major Classifications of Organisations
The following are the major classifications of organisations:
a. Industrial Sector v/s Agricultural Sector
b. Public Sector v/s Private Sector
c. Joint Sector v/s Co-operative Sector
d. Capital intensive
e. Labour intensive
f. Public Limited
g. Private Limited
h. Manufacturing Sector
i. Ser vice Sector
j. Large Scale
k. Small Scale, etc.
1.3 Major Factors Influencing an Organisation
The following are the factors that influence an organisation:
1.4 Organisational Behaviour
Ever y individual has 24 hours a day. Worldwide research has shown that an average person spends about 6 to 8 hours a day in sleep. Out of the remaining 18 hours, more than 8 hours are spent in working and travelling for work. This means that one gets less than 8 hours for one's personal and private life with family and friends. In other words, we spend about 33% of our life sleeping; about 50% of our life working and the rest about 17% of our life for personal pleasures.
If we study the daily routine of a person working in an organisation, we find that he spends more than 33% of his life in the organisation, less than 33% of his life sleeping and less than 33% of his life with his family, friends, relatives and for his personal hobbies, etc. With the increasing problems of accommodation, transpor t and communication in major urban areas in the countr y, one has to spend at least an hour per day travelling to and fro,the workplace. The entire routine of life has become so mechanical that man seems to have become an extension/accessor y to the machine, if not the machine himself. This has resulted in a tremendous amount of stress and strain on the individual, af fecting the physical as well as the mental health of the person.
The subject of Organisational Behaviour deals with that par t of our life, which we spend working, which is also called ‘On-the-job' life. Interestingly, our ‘of f- the-job’ life is inter-related and inter-dependent on the ‘on-the-job’ life and vice-versa. Generally, it is obser ved that those who are comfor table ‘on-the- job' are happy ‘of f-the-job' also.
Organisational behaviour has been defined by:
a. Keith Davis: As a study of human behaviour at work.
b. Fred Luthans: As understanding, prediction and control of human behaviour in the organisation.
c. Stephen Robbins: As a study that investigates the impact, individuals, groups and structure have on human behaviour within the organisation.
d. S. K. Kapur: As a systematic study...