Understanding Morphology

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  • Topic: Affix, Morpheme, Inflection
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MORPHOLOGY
Reading: pp. 39–41 and 53–56 of course reader

understanding nature of words

nature of language in general • PHONOLOGY • SYNTAX • SEMANTICS

the study of how symbols are used to represent sounds in speech the study of sentence structure the study of meaning in language

NB! (1) COLLECT A TUTORIAL QUESTION SHEET NB! (2) SIGN THE REGISTER BEFORE LEAVING

frog (i) its shape PHONOLOGICAL representation ORTHOGRAPHIC representation (ii) its grammatical properties NOUN and COUNTABLE (one frog, many frogs) (iii) its meaning French grenouille Malay katak Swahili chura arbitrary relationship between a linguistic sign and its meaning MORPHOLOGY the study of the formation and internal organisation of words /frøg/ frog

morphological knowledge

analyze existing words work out meanings of novel words subconscious knowledge 2

Examples one splet, many _______ My partner is a great list-maker and a ticker-off

racist sexist ageist sizeist speechist ageism sizism speechism child mend safe childish mended unsafe child-ish mend-ed un-safe *agement *sizement *speechment hope elephant wife hopeless elephants ex-wife hope-less elephant-s ex-wife soon boil

sooner re-boil

soon-er re-boil

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MORPHEME

the smallest unit of meaning or grammatical function in a language fairly stable meaning used again and again to form different words single morpheme = simple word more than one morpheme = complex word

Table: Words consisting of one or more morphemes (from O’Grady & de Guzman, 1996, p. 134) One and boy hunt act man Two boy-s hunt-er act-ive gentle-man Three More than three

hunt-er-s act-iv-ate re-act-iv-ate gentle-man-ly gentle-man-li-ness

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help help, unhelpful, helpfulness, unhelpfulness, helpless, helplessly, helplessness

internal structure groupings

ungovernability *govern-abil-un-ity *ity-un-abil-govern *abil-un-ity-govern *un-govern-ity-abil etc.

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FREE morphemes BOUND morphemes pest modern child pack laugh

can occur on their own can only occur as part of a word

pest(i)-cide post-modern-ist child-ish pre-pack-ed laugh-ing

Table: Some body parts in Hare (from O’Grady & de Guzman, 1996, p. 134) Without possessor *fí ‘head’ *bé ‘belly’ *dzé ‘heart’ With possessor sefí ‘my head’ nebé ‘your belly’ ÷edzé ‘someone’s heart/a heart’

Thai (from O’Grady & Guzman, 1996, p. 134) Boon hu˜ khaaw l´´w Boon cook rice past ‘Boon cooked rice’

ROOT

morpheme which forms the core of a word core constituent of a complex word

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roots mostly free in English exception: loc (‘place’) loc-al, loc-ation, dis-loc-ate

AFFIX

any morpheme that is appended to the root

COMPLEX word = ROOT + 1/more AFFIXes

V
wo

V
wo

A
g

Af
g

V
g

Af
g

modern

ize

destroy

ed

ROOT

carries major component of word’s meaning belongs to a LEXICAL category

noun (N) ‘things’

verb (V) actions

adjective (A) properties

preposition (P) relations of space, time

Which word class?

the _________? then will _________? then very ________? then

NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/wordclas/wordclas.htm
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AFFIX does not belong to a lexical category; always BOUND

PREFIX attached before the base SUFFIX attached after the base INFIX inserted within the root morpheme

My ex-husband now lives in Amanzimbloodytoti

BASE

form to which AFFIX is attached

difference between ROOT and BASE

BASE is intermediate

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REPRESENTING WORD STRUCTURE

childish A wo N Af g g child ish

mended V wo V Af g g mend ed

blackened V wo V Af ei g A Af ed g g black en

Base for -ed Root and base for –ed

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AFFIXATION

addition of an AFFIX common morphological process

Tagalog (Philippines) [sulat] ‘write’ [bili] ‘buy’ [kuha] ‘take, get’ [sumulat] [bumili] [kumuha] ‘to write’ ‘to buy’ ‘to take, to get’

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categorisation of affixes – functions they perform

DERIVATIONAL boyish conformist reprint unprintable...
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