Understanding Human Behaviour

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UNIT 4
Objectives

UNDERSTANDING HUMAN BEHAVIOUR

Indian Environment: The Changing Scenario

After going through this unit you should be able to understand: • importance of understanding human behaviour.

Structure 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 Introduction Models to Understand Human Behaviour Implications for the Organisation Personality Determinants of Personality Type and Trait Approaches to Personality Theories of Personality Importance of Personality Attitudes Attitudes and Organisation Values Socialisation's Influence on Personality, Values and Attitudes Schein Socialisation Model Summary Self-Assessment Questions Further Readings

4.1

INTRODUCTION

It is very essential to understand human behaviour in today's world as the existence of the organisation depends op the employees/individuals. Without understanding human behaviour it is very difficult to work in an organisation. In order to understand human behaviour let us see how the perception of human being has changed from time to time. All organisations are composed of individuals, with different personality, attitudes, values, perception, motives, aspirations and abilities. The main reason to understand behaviour is that individuals are different. No two individuals are similar. In the early studies, theories of organisation and management treated people as though they were the same; scientific management was based on the similarities among workers, not the differences. In contrast, modern theories of human behaviour are based upon the differences among people and how those differences can affect the organisation. Individual differences are many for example some employees are motivated to work and some are not. This can be due to several reasons, and can be known by further reading the unit. Before we proceed to understand human behaviour, it is better to know what the term `behaviour' means. Behaviour can be defined as a response/s which is observed directly/indirectly. Direct observation is possible by studying the responses of people to a work environment. Indirect observations are decision

5

Social Processes and Issues

making processes and attitudes, in terms of results or how people describe them verbally. Human behaviour is very much unpredictable. In behaviour we cannot assume one set pattern of behaviour. Lavitt classified behaviour as: (i) Caused behaviour, (ii) Motivated behaviour, (iii) Goal oriented behaviour. From these observations it can be understood that behaviour is a dependent factor. By understanding behaviour one can predict, direct, change and control behaviour of individuals or group. There are generally four basic assumptions regarding nature of people: individual differences, a whole person, caused behaviour (motivation) and value of the person (human

dignity).
In an organisational set up it is essential for managers to understand behaviour. as they are constantly with people, interacting with them in terms of communication (either written or oral) in terms of work (either by specifying the work and getting things done). Understanding past behaviour is important for developing effective human skills, and it also provides a framework for predicting behaviour. It also gives an idea to managers as to how behaviour is similar in certain circumstances and changing in changing environmental conditions. Another skill which an effective manager or leader needs is the ability to direct, change and control behaviour. Managers have to understand that there are-going to be individual differences among the employees, as no individual is similar to other. Each individual is unique by themselves. Then one has to understand that each individual has to be taken care of as a whole person by taking care of. his needs as well as training and making him up to date in terms of work. Ultimately human beings have to be treated with respect only then you can expect effective performance. With...
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