1.1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of debelopement from birth to 19 years.
Growth and development is considered in five stages:
Infancy - from birth to three years old
Childhood – from four to seven years
Puberty – from eight to twelve years
Adolescence – from thirteen to sixteen years
Birth to one year
New-born babies can:
see faces as fuzzy shapes
grasp an object that has touched the palm of their hand
turn their head to look for a nipple or teat if their cheek is touched
suck and swallow
try to make stepping movements if they are held upright with their feet on a firm surface
startle in response to a sudden sound or bright light
stretch their arms suddenly and then bring them in if they feel they are falling
recognise their mother’s voice and smell
cry when they are hungry, in pain, need feeding, changing or just cuddling.
One to three years
By their first birthday, babies can:
move around, either by crawling or shuffling or some may be standing with support and a small number walking alone
sit up alone and feed themselves, at least with their fingers
use their hands skilfully to move and arrange objects including dropping things on the floor and looking to see where they are
wave ‘bye bye’ and point at things with their fingers
communicate by babbling and saying two syllable words like ‘dada’
understand the world around them
know who their main carers are and cry if they are left with someone they do not know.
By their third birthday, children can:
run, climb and pedal a tricycle
walk upstairs on alternate feet and walk on tiptoe
use the toilet alone
talk clearly so anyone can understand them
tell the difference between boys and girls
sometimes play co-operatively with other children
build a tower of nine bricks and build a bridge with bricks
undo buttons... [continues]
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