The Understanding by Design framework was designed by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. It offers a planning process and structure to guide curriculum, assessment, and instruction towards interfering students’ understanding. This approach had been used in many countries as a guideline in designing curriculum. It has two key ideas which are, focus on teaching and assessing for Understanding and learning transfer, and also design curriculum “backward” from those ends. Covey, S (1994) also quoted from this, one of the tips if you want to success is “To begin with the end in mind means to start with a clear understanding of your destination”. Begin with the End in Mind means to begin each day, task, or project with a clear vision of your desired direction and destination, and then continue by flexing your proactive muscles to make things happen. Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe introduce the notion of a backward design process that begins the purpose of the task or the desired results and works backward from there. They pragmatically discuss the importance of clear goals and the thoughtful alignment of goals, assessments and also learning activities. They also highlighted a theory of the six facets of understanding and the priorities for establishing what is worth understanding. In additions, they describe the kinds of questions that can organize material for understanding by using three stages of backward design, identify desired results; determine acceptable evidence; and plan learning activities.
WHAT IS UNDERSTANDING BY DESIGN (UBD)?
Wiggins and McTighe defined, Understanding by Design is a "framework for designing curriculum units, performance assessments, and instruction that lead your students to deep understanding of the content you teach. UbD expands on "six facets of understanding", which include students being able to explain, interpret, apply, have perspective, empathize, and have...