Understand child and young person development
0-3 months - New babies start swallowing and sucking reflexes begin. They grasp your finger if you put your finger in their palm. If babies are held up on their feet they usually make stepping movements. When babies hear a sudden sounds or a light is suddenly switched on they will startle by moving their arms outwards and clenching their fists. Towards the end of 3 months babies look less curled up and startles less as they get used to their new surroundings. 3-6 months- By now they have grown in height and have gained weight. Babies are likely to cry less and learn the difference between day and night and are able to sleep through the night. They will start to smile and the sound of their parent’s voice, and start to lift and turn their heads. 6-9 months- Babies are more alert and turn their heads to see what is happening, they showing they are enjoying themselves by smiling and making noises. They can now react out to grab a toy and pass it from one hand to another. They try to communicate by making noises back to you as if they are talking and answering your questions. They also try to grab the spoon when you are trying to feed them at this age. Babies sit up with a support of their high chair or a person or propped up with pillows. They start rolling on their back from their fronts. 9-12 months- Most babies by now are starting to crawl and finding their way around, even if it’s rolling or shuffling. They now sit out without any support and they want to explore so much more. They pick up objects and become more skilled at this. They feed themselves with their fingers. 1-2 years- At this age children can stand up and hold onto furniture, they can crawl very quickly and being skilled at using their hands. They get repeative with things they do such as taking hat off or pulling socks off, this also gets the adults attention. At 18months they begin to find their feet more and enjoy the freedom it gives them. They now can sit on toys and push themselves along with their legs for example- a small truck. 2-4 years- At 2 years old children move confidently and enjoy walking and being able to choose what they want to play with. They may start running and climbing at this age or it could take them till 3 years, depends on the child. They now enjoy pedaling a tricycle or pushing it along with their feet. Some children at this age can walk upstairs using alternative feet. 4-7 years- Children are now using their hands everyday for themselves enjoying activities such as coloring, painting, threading, pouring, controlling a mouse on the computer, and using scissors. They are also able to catch and throw a ball, kick and control a ball. Being to write and using more fine motor skills. 7- 12 years- At this age children find writing and reading a lot easier, handwriting becomes neater and drawings. Also cutting things out is more accurate. From 9 onwards they can now read, write , draw. They have greater coordination and speed when carrying out both fine and large movements, Such as running, football. 12-16 years- Physical changes start happening to the body to prepare for adulthood. Girl’s puberty starts around 11 years, whereas boys may not start until they are 13 or 14 years old. This can cause embarrassment and fell anxious. 16- 19 years- Body changes to prepare for adulthood. Boys may get beards and their voices may start to change. Girls around the age of 15 or 16 will have finished puberty, whereas the boys may have started age 13 or 14 and is likely to take about 3 years to complete.
Intellectual and cognitive development
0-3 months- Babies will recognize the smell and sounds of parents voice, they may stop crying when this happens knowing that they are safe. They also try hard to focus on your face, but hold them 20-25 cm away from you as they may be able to see you. 3-6 months- They start to notice mobiles and other objects around them...
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