Unconventional Propulsion

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Future Spacecraft Propulsion Systems
Enabling Technologies for Space Exploration

Paul A. Czysz and Claudio Bruno

Future Spacecraft Propulsion Systems
Enabling Technologies for Space Exploration

Praxis Publishing
Chichester, UK

Published in association with

Professor Paul A. Czysz Oliver L. Parks Endowed Chair in Aerospace Engineering Parks College of Engineering and Aviation St Louis University St Louis Missouri USA Professor Claudio Bruno Dipartimento di Meccanica e Aeronautica Á Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza Rome Italy

SPRINGER±PRAXIS BOOKS IN ASTRONAUTICAL ENGINEERING SUBJECT ADVISORY EDITOR: John Mason, M.Sc., B.Sc., Ph.D.

ISBN 10: 3-540-23161-7 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York Springer is part of Springer-Science + Business Media (springeronline.com) Bibliographic information published by Die Deutsche Bibliothek Die Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliogra®e; detailed bibliographic data are available from the Internet at http://dnb.ddb.de Library of Congress Control Number: 2005934712 Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers. # Praxis Publishing Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006 Printed in Germany The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a speci®c statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. Cover design: Jim Wilkie Project management: Originator Publishing Services, Gt Yarmouth, Norfolk, UK Printed on acid-free paper

Contents

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of ®gures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 The challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 Historical developments . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 The challenge of ¯ying to space . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Operational requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Operational space distances, speed and times . 1.5 Implied propulsion performance . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Propulsion concepts available for Solar System 1.7 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Our 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xi xv xxv

1 11 11 12 13 15 18 23 28 34 35 35 36 41 43 51 58 61

2

progress appears to be impeded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meeting the challenge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Early progress in Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Historical analogues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evolution of Space launchers from ballistic missiles . . . . . . . . . Con¯icts between expendable rockets and reusable airbreathers . Commercial near Earth launchers enable the ®rst step . . . . . . . 2.6.1 On-orbit operations in proximate Earth orbit: a necessary second step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vi Contents

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