Causes and Types of Errors
Conducting research in any science course is dependent upon obtaining measurements. No measure is ever exact due to errors in instrumentation and measuring skills. If you were to obtain the mass of an object with a digital balance, the reading gives you a measure with a specific set of values. We can assume that the actual measure lies either slightly above or slightly below that reading. The range is the uncertainly of the measurement taken. More accurate instruments have a smaller range of uncertainty. Whenever you take a measurement, the last recorded digit is your estimate. We call digits in a measurement significant figures.
All measurements have inherent uncertainty. We therefore need to give some indication of the reliability of measurements and the uncertainties in the results calculated from these measurements. When processing your experimental results, a discussion of uncertainties should be included. When writing the conclusion to your lab report you should evaluate your experiment and its results in terms of the various types of errors. To better understand the outcome of experimental data an estimate of the size of the systematic errors compared to the random errors should be considered. Random errors are due to the accuracy of the equipment and systematic errors are due to how well the equipment was used or how well the experiment was controlled. We will focus on the types of experimental uncertainty, the expression of experimental results, and a simple method for estimating experimental uncertainty when several types of measurements contribute to the final result.
1. Random errors: Precision (Errors inherent in apparatus.)
A random error makes the measured value both smaller and larger than the true value. Chance alone determines if it is smaller or larger. Reading the scales of a balance, graduated cylinder, thermometer, etc. produces random errors. In other words, you can weigh a dish on a balance and get a different answer each time simply due to random errors. They cannot be avoided; they are part of the measuring process. Uncertainties are measures of random errors. These are errors incurred as a result of making measurements on imperfect tools which can only have certain degree of accuracy. They are predictable, and the degree of error can be calculated. Generally they can be estimated to be half of the smallest division on a scale. For a digital reading such as an electronic balance the last digit is rounded up or down by the instrument and so will also have a random error of ± half the last digit.
2. Systematic errors: Accuracy (Errors due to "incorrect" use of equipment or poor experimental design.)
A systematic error makes the measured value always smaller or larger than the true value, but not both. An experiment may involve more than one systematic error and these errors may nullify one another, but each alters the true value in one way only. Accuracy (or validity) is a measure of the systematic error. If an experiment is accurate or valid then the systematic error is very small. Accuracy is a measure of how well an experiment measures what it was trying to measure. These are difficult to evaluate unless you have an idea of the expected value (e.g. a text book value or a calculated value from a data book). Compare your experimental value to the literature value. If it is within the margin of error for the random errors then it is most likely that the systematic errors are smaller than the random errors. If it is larger then you need to determine where the errors have occurred. Assuming that no heat is lost in a calorimetry experiment is a systematic error when a Styrofoam cup is used as a calorimeter. Thus, the measured value for heat gain by water will always be too low. When an accepted value is available for a result determined by experiment, the percent error can be calculated.