The United Nations:
Origin and Purpose
Steps in the formation of World International Organisation: United Nations
| World witnessed the horrifying World War I
| Proceeded by the formation of League of Nations.
| Failure of the League of Nations tied with other factors resulted in the outbreak of World War II
| While the nations are at war 1941
| Meeting of nations at London takes place.
| (a) London Declaration
| Proposed the establishment of International Organisation.
| (b)The Atlantic Charter:
| U.S President Franklin Roosevelt and the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill signed a declaration known as Atlantic Charter.Recognised the principle of Sovereign equality of all states, irrespective of its size, big or small.
| (c)The Moscow Declaration: (1943)
| Representatives of Britain, United States , Russia and China met at Moscow (Russia), meeting ended up signing Moscow Declaration. The urgency for setting up of International Organisation.Leaders decided : I. To establish organisation at the earliest. II. Sovereign equality of all nation states to be recognised. III. All peace loving nations could join. IV. To maintain international peace and security.
| (d) Dumberton Oaks (Washington) (1944)
| Representatives of UK, US, USSR and China metLeaders decided and agreed upon the i. Aims of the UN ii. Structure of the UN and iii. Functioning of UN.
| (e) Conference at Yalta:
| Attended by US (Roosevelt), USSR Premier (Stalin) and UK (W. Churchill).The use of Veto Power by the five supreme powers was counted on.
| (f) San Francisco Conference : 1945
| Attended by 50 members.Signed the Atlantic Charter.Poland unable to make to the meeting though, yet earns the membership.Totals to 51 membership.Today UN constitutes of 193/196 member states.
Objectives of the Atlantic Charter:
| Aims: i. to maintain international peace and security and save the succeeding generation from the scourge of wars. ii. To reaffirm faith in the fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human power. iii. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the equal rights of the people and to strengthen universal peace. iv. International cooperation in solving economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. v. To promote respect for human rights and freedom. vi. UN a common platform for deliberation of problems and their redressal.
| Article II
| Principles: i. The UN is based on the principle of sovereign equality of all its members. ii. All members to fulfill in good faith the obligations in accordance to A.Charter. iii. All members to refrain from the threat or use of force against any other State, in their international relations. iv. All members shall give assistance to UN in any action it takes in accordance with the A.Charter. v. To settle international disputes by peaceful means.
How World War II contributed in the formation of United Nations:Second World War II witnessed immense destruction in terms of man, money. Japan's aggressive attack on US's naval base Pearl Harbor provoked the US that answered its loss by bombing the two Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 sparked the WWII. Killing millions of people. Destruction on large scale stemmed for the formation of the international organisation that would prevent preceding wars.
The General Assembly:
Organ: Deliberative Organ. The Parliament.
Member States: 193/196.
President: One, Each year in turn to each of the 5 groups of States: Africa, Asia, East-Europe, Latin America and West European...
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