Mr. S. Thomas
Dec 19th 2012
The United Nations Mandate and its Future
As long as civilizations have existed on the Earth the issue of war and peace has always been at the forefront of how different cultures and societies interact with one another. As warfare became more advanced technologically, the ability to cause more death and devastation increased exponentially. Never was this more evident than at the aftermath of World War Two; with over 60 million people dead in its wake World War Two was the single most deadly military conflict in history. Borne out of this conflict the major victors of the war and world leaders came to the consensus that humanity could not sustain another mass conflict. To prevent another mass global conflict the United Nations was established as the international organization that would be committed to world peace and universal cooperation. Over the years the United Nations has played important role in international relations and diplomacy. Since its establishment the main purpose for the United Nations (U.N.) has been to diplomatically resolve disagreement between nations before conflicts escalate and to safe guard human rights and dignity globally. Unfortunately, the U.N. has consistently failed to live up to its mandate and will continue to do so because of its blatant failures to prevent genocides, its inability to resolve conflicts and the its dysfunctional structuring that enables the permanent Security Council to dominate the dominate the organization. Following the end of World War II, there was a general consensus around the leaders main victors in the war and other countries that the world could simply not withstand another global conflict and that an effective international body needed to be created to ensure world peace. On 25 April 1945, the UN Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco, attended by 50 governments whose goal was drafting a charter for the United Nations Charter. The Charter way ratified on June 26th 1945 and consolidated the United Nations as the world’s prominent international organization. In light of the central principle of universal human rights that the United Nations advocated, it was determined to draft a document to highlight this aims. At this end the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was conceived. The Declaration of Human Rights in tandem with the United Nations Charter are two of the central documents of the United Nations. Despite its implicit commitment to prevent all forms of Genocide human rights as stated in its mandate; it is generally agreed that the United Nation’s has had a less than admirable record on preventing incidence of genocide and ethnic cleansing. After the war the United Nations made strides in cementing its adopting global human rights protocols and a large part of that was drafting Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, but it has had little success in stopping major acts of genocide since its inception. Two incidences that highlight the United Nations failure to intervene in actions of genocide were the Srebrenica Massacre in Bosnia, and the Rwandan genocide. In 1991 Bosnia had declared its independence from Yugoslavia. Years of conflict followed between Bosnia and the Yugoslavia and Yugoslavia. In 1993 the U.N security council passed a resolution that dictated that the small (Bosnian) town of Srebrenica a safe area and stationed 400 Dutch Peacekeepers there to ensure that no conflict was to occur there. Arms were taken away from the Bosnian troops but the Yugoslavian contingent was still armed and had already mobilized and surrounded Srebrenica. The city was captured by 1995 and the more than 8000 Bosnian Muslims (mostly men) were murdered by Yugoslavian Forces. Scores of Bosnian Muslims evacuated from Srebrenica and were killed in mass executions. In 1999, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan submitted his report on the Fall of...