FACULTY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
JAMES JOYSE, ‘ULYSSES’
Theory cource paper
Submitted to ADRIANA RADUCANU
Done by Dildora Azizova
Aims and methods:
A background information of James Joyce
The secret of Ulysses
Analysing the poem with cultural studies and poststructuralism Conclusion
James Joyce (1882-1941), Irish novelist, noted for his experimental use of language in such works as Ulysses (1922) and Finnegans Wake (1939). Joyce's technical innovations in the art of the novel include an extensive use of interior monologue; he used a complex network of symbolic parallels drawn from the mythology, history, and literature, and created a unique language of invented words, puns, and allusions. James Joyce was born in Dublin, on February 2, 1882, as the son of John Stanislaus Joyce, an impoverished gentleman, who had failed in a distillery business and tried all kinds of professions, including politics and tax collecting. Joyce's mother, Mary Jane Murray, was ten years younger than her husband. She was an accomplished pianist, whose life was dominated by the Roman Catholic Church. In spite of their poverty, the family struggled to maintain a solid middle-class facade. From the age of six Joyce, was educated by Jesuits at Clongowes Wood College, at Clane, and then at Belvedere College in Dublin (1893-97). In 1898 he entered the University College, Dublin. Joyce's first publication was an essay on Ibsen's play When We Dead Awaken. It appeared in the Fortnightly Review in 1900. At this time he also began writing lyric poems. He reflected that the progressive extension of the field of individual development and experience was regressively accompanied by a restriction of the converse domain of interindividual relations. Ulysses, Episode XVII
Ulysses is the story of two characters, Leopold Bloom, and Stephen Dedalus, engaged in their quests for the riches of life. In their quests, both learn to release processes of growth during which these riches are gained. Bloom's and Stephen's personal quests illustrate and demonstrate conditions every human has to accept if his yearnings for a full, intense, peaceful life are to be fulfilled. Bloom and Stephen exemplify man. Their place of activity is Dublin, which for Joyce exemplifies the world. Their gains instruct every man who wishes to engage in the 'secret life'. If the secrets are self-experienced in consecutive spiritual 'deaths and rebirths' which are dream-deaths correlated to structural changes of the mind, and if self-awareness of these transfigurations is gained, wisdom is gained. This wisdom seems to dispel doubts as to the meaning of life, as to the understanding of the enigmatic destiny of man and as to the 'truth'. It leaves human emotions satisfied although it leaves all final questions with regard to the Universe as unanswered as any of the religious doctrines. Joyce characterizes the process of growth in many ways:
| Bloom is victimized by fascinations, Stephen by rebellion, both find freedom under the lex which is the commandment of God.
| Both are sexually and emotionally impotent and devoid of creative power, both regain potency and creativity.
| Both are enmeshed in seemingly insolvable conflicts, both solve them correctly and establish the preconditions of a harmonious and joyful life.
| Both find themselves in a state of sinfulness, understand the deadly effect of their sins, repent and atone.
| Both learn to submit to God's judgment and to accept His Grace in humility.
| Bloom has lost his son Rudy, searches for him, and finds him -- the 'soul' and 'spirit'.
| Stephen has lost his father, searches for him, and finds him -- the 'body' and the 'soul'.
| Bloom and Stephen, in their mutual and interrelated quests, represent Man fallen who finds in his redeemer the transforming, saving powers.
| The processes may be characterized by their ends: the mentally and physically...
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