PREPARED BY : Kamal Parmar (080140111029) Prashant Saija (080140111051 ) Chitrangi Shah (080140111053 ) GUIDED BY : Vishal Borad 2
Outline… In this presentation, we have covered : Introduction RADAR System. RADAR Equation. Classifications of radar. Block Diagram. Main parts of the hardware Technical Specifications WWIGO, Features & System requirements for wwigo . Wwigo detected PATTERN Application Of US RADAR Conclusion. Bibliography 3
RADAR(RAdio Detection and Ranging ) Radar is an object detection system that uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range, altitude, direction, or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as aircraft, ships, motor vehicles, weather information and terrain. The term RADAR was coined in 1941 as an acronym for RA dio D etection A nd R anging. A long-range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR. 4
Introduction Ultrasonic RADAR is basically one of the applications of the RADAR system. It consists of a set of ultrasonic transmitter and receiver, both of which operate at the same frequency. When something moves in the area covered by the system, the fine balance of the circuit is disturbed and the alarm system connected at the receiver side is triggered. The circuit is sensitive and can be adjusted to reset itself automatically or to stay triggered until it is manually reset after an alarm. 5 RADAR SYSTEM:
RADAR SYSTEM 6
RADAR is an acronym for Radio Detection and Ranging. It uses electromagnetic waves to remote sense the position, velocity and identifying characteristics of targets. This is accomplished by illuminating a volume of space with electromagnetic energy and sensing the energy reflected by objects in that space. Radar is used to extend the capability of one’s senses for observing the environment, especially the sense of vision. 7
RADAR SIGNAL TRANSMISSION 8
The value of radar lies in not being a substitute for the eye but in doing what the eye cannot do . Transmitter radiates high power EM signal towards target. The target intercept small part of this signal and radiates back towards the transmitter. The receiver collects reflected signal and process it to collect information about the target i.e. range, velocity and angle information of the target. 9
10 The distance to the target is measured by measuring the time taken for the radar signal to travel to the target and back. The distance is nothing but the total round trip delay divide by two.
RADAR EQUATION 11
Where, Rmax : Maximum range of the RADAR upto which the target is detectable. Smin : Minimum discernible signal. Antenna Gain[G]: Focusing effect versus omni -directional antenna. Antenna Aperture [ Ae ] affected by Carrier frequency, Antenna physical size, Antenna construction. σ is cross section area of target. Pt: Peak power & can be influenced by maintenance. 12
RADAR CLASSIFICATION Based on nature of signal Continuous Wave Radar Pulsed Radar Based on number of antenna used 1. Monostatic Radar 2. Bistatic Radar 13
Continuous Wave Radar Continuous Wave radars are those that continuously emit electromagnetic energy. They can use both modulated and unmodulated waveforms. Modulated Continuous Wave radar transmits signals in constant amplitude but modulated in frequency and can extract both distance and speed information. However, unmodulated Continuous Wave radar transmits signals in constant amplitude and frequency and can only obtain speed measurements . 14
Pulsed RADAR Pulsed Radar uses a train of pulsed waveforms which can use frequency modulated or pulse modulated, in order to determine distance or speed. In Pulse Radar the angle information is obtained from the...