| UK Media History |
History of Press in UK
By the early 19th century there were 52 London papers and over 100 other titles. As stamp, paper and other duties were progressively reduced from the 1830s onwards (all duties on newspapers were gone by 1855) there was a massive growth in overall circulation as major events and improved communications developed the public's need for information. The Daily Universal Register began life in 1785 and was later to become known as The Times from 1788. This was the most significant newspaper of the first half of the 19th century, but from around 1860 there were a number of more strongly competitive titles, each differentiated by its political biases and interests. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by a group of non-conformist businessmen. Its most famous editor, Charles Prestwich Scott, made the Manchester Guardian into a world-famous newspaper in the 1890s. It is now called The Guardian and published in London. The Chartist Northern Star, first published on 26 May 1838, was a pioneer of popular journalism but was very closely linked to the fortunes of the movement and was out of business by 1852. At the same time there was the establishment of more specialized periodicals and the first cheap newspaper in the Daily Telegraph and Courier (1855), later to be known simply as the Daily Telegraph. From 1860 until around 1910 is considered a 'golden age' of newspaper publication, with technical advances in printing and communication combined with a professionalization of journalism and the prominence of new owners. Newspapers became more partisan and there was the rise of new or yellow journalism (see William Thomas Stead). Socialist and labour newspapers also proliferated and in 1912 the Daily Herald was launched as the first daily newspaper of the trade union and labour movement. The Illustrated London News, founded in 1842, was the world's first illustrated weekly newspaper. Mason Jackson, its art editor for thirty years, published in 1885 The Pictorial Press, a history of illustrated newspapers. The Illustrated London News was published weekly until 1971 when it became monthly; bimonthly from 1989; and then quarterly before publication ceased. By the 1930s, over two thirds of the population was estimated to read a newspaper every day, with "almost everyone" taking one on Sundays. History of Radio in UK
Radio broadcasting in the UK began in the 1920 with Marconi’s experimental station 2MT, located in Writtle, Essex. Marconi brought together his own research with the work of other scientists to produce commercially viable wireless communication systems. By 1895 Marconi had made experimental transmissions using 'Hertzian Waves' over several kilometers in Italy. However insufficient interest was shown in his native Italy so, in 1896, he moved to London where the benefits of the wireless telegraphy system were demonstrated to General Post Office and Armed Forces. After much development work Marconi made the first radio transmission across the Atlantic.
By May 1922, seeing the commercial potential of radio broadcasting, Marconi's company was in talks with wireless set manufactures and other interested organizations to set up more broadcasting stations around the country under an umbrella organization called the British Broadcasting Company (BBC). The main companies involved in the creation of the British Broadcasting Company and guaranteeing its finances for an initial period of two years were The Marconi Co; The General Electric Co; The Radio Communications Co; Metropolitan Vickers Co; Western Electric Co and The British Thompson-Houston Company. Their joint mission was to make money from the sale of radio sets - and people would only want to buy into this exciting new technology if there were wireless programs to listen to.
On October 18th 1922 the British Broadcasting Company was formed - with the government indeed granting the BBC a license to operate -...
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