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Typology

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  • April 17, 2013
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1. The subject of comparative typology and its aims.
Comparative typology, as the notion itself reveals, represents a linguistic subject of typology based on the method of comparison. Like typology proper Comparative typology also aims at establishing the most general structural types of languages on their dominant or common phonetically, morphological, lexical and syntactical features. Comparative typology may equally treat dominant or common features only, as well as divergent features only, which are found in languages of the same structural type (synthetic, analytical, agglutinative, etc) or in languages of the different structural types, (synthetic and analytical, agglutinative and incorporative, etc). Classification of the main essential features of languages, the most important characteristics and regularities are the subject of comp. typology. The final aims of comp. typ.are:

- To identify and classify accordingly the main isomorphic and allomorphic features characteristic of languages under investigation; - To draw from these common or divergent features respectively the isomorphic regularities and the allomorphic singularities in the languages contrasted; - To establish on the basis of the obtained isomorphic features the typical language structures and the types of languages; - To perform on the basis of the obtained practical data a truly scientific classification of the existing languages of the world; - To establish on this basis the universal features/phenomena, which pertain to each single language of the world. 2. The difference between typological and historic and comparative linguistics. Historical linguistics (also called diachronic linguistics) is the study of language change. It has five main concerns: • to describe and account for observed changes in particular languages; • to reconstruct the pre-history of languages and determine their relatedness, grouping them into language families (comparative...