1. The subject of comparative typology and its aims.
Comparative typology, as the notion itself reveals, represents a linguistic subject of typology based on the method of comparison. Like typology proper Comparative typology also aims at establishing the most general structural types of languages on their dominant or common phonetically, morphological, lexical and syntactical features. Comparative typology may equally treat dominant or common features only, as well as divergent features only, which are found in languages of the same structural type (synthetic, analytical, agglutinative, etc) or in languages of the different structural types, (synthetic and analytical, agglutinative and incorporative, etc). Classification of the main essential features of languages, the most important characteristics and regularities are the subject of comp. typology. The final aims of comp. typ.are:
- To identify and classify accordingly the main isomorphic and allomorphic features characteristic of languages under investigation; - To draw from these common or divergent features respectively the isomorphic regularities and the allomorphic singularities in the languages contrasted; - To establish on the basis of the obtained isomorphic features the typical language structures and the types of languages; - To perform on the basis of the obtained practical data a truly scientific classification of the existing languages of the world; - To establish on this basis the universal features/phenomena, which pertain to each single language of the world. 2. The difference between typological and historic and comparative linguistics. Historical linguistics (also called diachronic linguistics) is the study of language change. It has five main concerns: • to describe and account for observed changes in particular languages; • to reconstruct the pre-history of languages and determine their relatedness, grouping them into language families (comparative linguistics); • to develop general theories about how and why language changes; • to describe the history of speech communities;
• to study the history of words.
Typological linguistics is a subfield of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural features. Its aim is to describe and explain the structural diversity of the world's languages. Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness. It aims to construct language families, to reconstruct proto-languages and specify the changes that have resulted in the documented languages. To maintain a clear distinction between attested and reconstructed forms, comparative linguists prefix an asterisk to any form that is not found in surviving texts. A number of methods for carrying out language classification have been developed, ranging from simple inspection to computerised hypothesis testing. Such methods have gone through a long process of development. Comparative linguistics is that branch of one,which deals with the study of languages in terms of their history,relatedness,families and construct new forms.
3.Methods of comparative typological research.
-the comparative method aims at establishing the isomorphic(alongside of allomorphic) features and on their basis the determining of structural types of languages under contrastive investigation; -the deductive method is based on logical calculation which suggests all the possible variants of realization of a certain feature/phenomenon in speech of one or more contrasted languages; -the inductive method which needs novarification, since the investigated feature was proved by linguists and therefore the results obtained are possible; -the statistic method for establishing the necessary quantitative and qualitative representation of some features or for identifying the percentage of co-ocurrence of some...
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