Typology is the most common method of data analysis used in qualitative research. Generally, typology is defined as creation of a system of classification, list of mutually exclusive categories. Typologies are generated from theory, common sense, and/or research objectives, and initial data processing happens within those typological groupings.
Elman (n.d) mentions that typology has three functions in qualitative research analysis which are; descriptive, classificatory and explanatory. The descriptive function defines and describes the various types of data and distinguishes the data. The classificatory function assigns cases in the raw qualitative data, classifying them under one of the categories in a given typology. While the explanatory function places data in relevant categories, allows researchers to make a comparison and access whether the data are consistent with relevant theories.
Hatch (2007) brings up several steps that need to be done in typological analysis which are: 1.Read data, coding entries according to patterns, identified and keep a record of what entries go with what elements of your patterns. Researchers need to read through all of the data which are hypothetical patterns, relationships, or themes. Then, get coded of the data with some kind of mark that distinguishes it from other categories. This step will best explain through an example in Appendix 1. 2.Decide if patterns are supported by the data, and search data for non examples of your patterns Not all the re-read and coded data will neatly fit into the research categories. So, researchers need to make a judgment about whether the categories are justified by the data or not. The judgment will be based on how well the data that are coded fit into the categories. Inversely, this step looks for the data not coded that are differs from what have proposed. 3.Look for relationships among the patterns identified
The research result will be a set of patterns, relationships...