Strikes and lockouts
constitutional or official strikes
rotating or revolving strikes
tool-down or pen-down strike
The data supplied to the ILO do not include statistics on sympathetic or political strikes or on gheraos (harassment of employers, etc. by workers preventing them from leaving the premises until their claims are granted) which result in work stoppages. The statistics for these types of action are collected and published separately. Working to rule and overtime bans are excluded.
Minimum threshold At least 10 workers involved.
Industries performing services relating to sovereign functions are excluded, as there is no responsibility for reporting. Workers
Workers directly involved and workers indirectly involved. In addition to regular paid employees, including part-time workers, the statistics cover temporary, casual and seasonal workers, and unpaid family workers. Workers laid off, or absent on sick leave, annual leave or absent for other reasons are not included. No particular occupational groups are excluded.
Geographic areas Not available.
Types of data collected
number of strikes and lockouts
number of workers involved
time not worked
matter in dispute
outcome of strike or lockout
method of settlement
affiliation of union of workers to central organisation of workers sector (private or public)
Concepts and definitions
A cessation of work by a body of persons employed in any industry acting in combination, or a concerted refusal, or a refusal under a common understanding, of any number of persons who are or have been so employed to continue to work or to accept employment. Lockout
The temporary closing of a place of employment or the suspension of work or the refusal by an employer to continue to employ any number of persons employed by him. These definitions come from the Industrial Dispute Act 1947. Methods of measurement
Strikes and lockouts
The basic unit of measurement used to record a strike or lockout is the case of dispute. A strike or lockout that is interrupted and later resumes, still due to the same case of dispute, is treated as a new strike or lockout when it resumes. If work stoppages due to the same case of dispute occur simultaneously in different establishments of the same enterprise they are considered to be one strike or lockout. Similarly, if stoppages, due to the same case of dispute, occur simultaneously in establishments of different enterprises, they are treated as one strike or lockout; parameters such as industry, sector of ownership, result, method of settlement and affiliation to the central workers' or employers' organization are also kept in mind when deciding whether the stoppage is a single strike or lockout. Stoppages due to the same case of dispute occurring at different times are treated as different strikes or lockouts. Workers involved
The number of workers involved is the highest number of workers involved at any one time during the strike or lockout. Part-time workers are counted as individuals on the same basis as full-time workers. Duration
The duration is measured in workdays from the date the strike or lockout began in the first economic unit involved to the date it terminated, uninterrupted, in the last one. Time not worked
The amount of time not worked is measured in workdays by ascertaining the total amount of time not worked on each day of the strike or lockout, and summing these totals. The shorter working hours of part-time workers are taken into account as follows: the time normally worked by them is divided by the length of a full shift, then multiplied by the number of part-time workers involved to reach an estimate of the number of days not worked by them, for each day. Overtime is not taken into account. Classifications
Cause of dispute
wages and allowances
personnel (promotion, transfers,...
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