Types of Planning

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INTRODUCTION
Besides organizing, controlling and leading, planning is one of the management functions. Good planning is crucial to enable an organization to function effectively. Planning is done for two purposes, firstly as a protection to the organization and secondly to increase the affirmative levels of an organization according to C.W. Roney (Certo, 2000). As a protection to the organization, a manager can forecast the effects from each of the suggestions or alternative actions that will be carried out. Then managers will be able to ensure what needs to be done, how to carry out the actions, why it has to be done, when to do it, who should implement it with proper planning. And it is done to increase the affirmative levels of an organization.

According to Fayol - The plan of action is, at one and the same time, the result envisaged, the line of action to be followed, the stages to go through, and the methods to use. It is a kind of future picture wherein proximate events are outlined with some distinctness. Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done. It involves the selection of objectives, policies, procedures and programs from among alternatives. A plan is a predetermined course of action to achieve a specified goal. It is a statement of objectives to be achieved by certain means in the future. In short, it is a blueprint for action.

Louis A Allen
Management planning involves the development of forecasts, objectives, policies, programs procedures, schedules and budgets.

Theo Haimann
Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done. When a manager plans, he projects a course of action, for the future, attempting to achieve a consistent, co-ordinated structure of operations aimed at the desired results.

Koontz O’Donnell
Planning is an intellectual process, the conscious determination of courses of action, the basing of decisions on purpose, acts and considered estimates.

.TYPES OF PLANNING
According to Dessler (2001) there are three main types of planning which are planning based on format, organization hierarchy and frequency of use.

PLANNING BASED ON FORMAT
Descriptive planning is a planning written in the form of statements that state what needs to be achieved and how it is achievable for example, planning of an individual’s career. Budgeting is plan that stated quantitatively by using financial terms. Graphics planning is a planning that explains what needs to be achieved and how to achieve it in the form of charts. For example Gantt chart, it illustrates the time period required in order to implement an activity in the form of bar chart.

PLANNING BASED ON ORGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHY
There are three levels in an organization - top management, middle management, lower management. Top management (strategic plan)
Strategic planning focuses on long-term issues for the survival, growth, and overall effectiveness of the organization. Companies need to be visionary, and must develop long-term strategies to meet changing conditions in their industries. Strategic planning involves developing a strategy to meet competition and ensure long-term survival and growth. The marketing function plays an important role in this process in that to provides information and other inputs to help in the preparation of the organization’s strategic plan long term plan. Middle management (tactical plan)

Tactical planning focuses their goals on a shorter time frame, usually ranging from one month to one year. Middle managers give authority and responsibility to team leaders or supervisors, after that they provide direction, necessary resources, and feedback on performance as tasks are completed. Usually they need more detailed information than top managers, but less information than team leaders and supervisors. They also use business support systems, knowledge management systems, and user productivity systems to perform their jobs. Lower management (operational plan)

Lower management carries out...
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