I will be explaining the functions of the different components and types of synovial joints and explain the structure and function of cartilaginous and fixed joints. Most of the joints are synovial and contain synovial fluid which is a lubricating liquid. These are found in the limbs where mobility is important. A synovial joint is also known as a Diarthrosis which are freely movable joints. These types of synovial joints are the largest group with the greatest variations and can be found in the shoulder or hips. Some examples of these include the hips, wrists and elbows and shoulders. Movements that these joints allow are flexion and extension, and rotational movement.
The components of synovial joints include cartilage to reduce friction and absorb shock, synovial fluid to lubricate the joints, synovial membrane which produces this fluid, tendon which joins the muscle to the bone and ligament which joins bones to bones.
There are many different types of joint which permit different amounts of movement. There are 6 types of synovial joints found in the body. From top to bottom, there are the pivot joints which are found in the neck which allows you to turn the head side to side and up and down. The ball and socket joints are the most mobile type of joint and could be found in the hips and shoulder. Hinge joints can be found in the elbows, knees and fingers. These give movement like opening and closing like a hinged door. An ellipsoid joint is like a squashed circle and is found where the ulna and radius meets the wrist bones. These are often referred to as condyloid joints. These joints allow bending and extending, but rotation is limited. A saddle joint is only found in the thumbs and enable us to grasp things. A gliding joint glides together between the bones of the feet and can be called planar joints too.
Movements include; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, pronation, supination and circumduction. Flexion is when you...