A disease is an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism. There are four main types of disease: pathogenic disease, deficiency disease, hereditary disease, and physiological disease. Pathogenic diseases are caused by what is called a pathogen. Pathogens are parasitic organisms that cause disease in their host. For example the pathogen e.coli which can make people ill or kill them. Deficiency diseases are caused by a deficiency of a particular nutrient in the diet. A lack of vitamin c causes scurvy. Hereditary diseases are passed on through generations via their genes, for example sickle cell disease. Physiological diseases are caused by the failure or malfunction of body parts or organs, for example diabetes. Proper sanitation and other disease-avoidance measures, ranging from hand washing to vaccination, as well as taking antibiotics are used in the prevention and treatment of pathogenic diseases. Hereditary diseases are treated by enzyme replacement therapy, medication miglustat, and bone marrow transplantation and gene therapy1
Physiological diseases such as diabetes can be treated by:
Diet- a healthy diet is key to controlling blood sugar levels and preventing diabetes complications. Exercise-regular exercise can reduce the risk of developing complications of diabetes such as stroke and kidney failure. Hypertension can be treated by:
Diet- eating foods low in sugar, starch and salt.
Exercise- a regular exercise program may help lower blood pressure over the long term.
• L. Chinnery, J. Glasgow, G. Jones and M. Jones (2001).CXC Biology Third Edition. Cambridge University Press