Written Report Title: Types of Counseling Approaches
School Year /Semester: 1st Semester/ 2011-2012
Reporter: John Carlo J. Sto. Domingo
Types of Counseling Approaches
A counselor’s assistance to an individual depends on the type of counseling he uses. The five types of counseling approaches are: Directive or Clinical Counseling, Non-directive Counseling (Client-Centered), Group and Environmental Counseling, Group Counseling and Developmental Counseling. Directive or Clinical Counseling
This type is termed and described as clinical by Williamson. It consists of one process and one treatment. Directive counseling allows the counselor to give the counselee information about himself, his opportunities, and his problems. The method enables the counselor to provide the counselee with needed assistance in making the many choices, plans, adjustments, and interpretations which are essential parts of the educational experience. The most distinctive feature of the directive counseling method is the tendency of the counselor to focus first attention upon the counselee’s problem. He may lead in the conversation, point out inconsistencies, or suggest the action to take. The counselor guides the discussion through: a) Testing
The counselor doesn’t judge, condemn or criticize. He evaluates facts objectively and explains the issue without offending the counselee. William lists four steps in directive counseling: 1. Clinical Analyses – this collecting, summarizing, and or organizing facts about the client. 2. Diagnosis – This refers to formulating hypothesis on the causes of problem. 3. Prognosis – This is predicting the development of the problem. 4. Counseling – The counselor and counselee talk and discuss the problem by means of leading questions. This will enable the counselee to develop insight.
To show how these four steps could be applied, they are illustrated in seven (7) processes. Each process presents how a counselor leads and acts on problems presented to her by the counselee. Process 1- Teaching the client a viewpoint
S: I am confused, my parents are separated, with whom shall I stay? C: I’d like to follow up about what you mentioned. What really matters is what you think of yourself because it has something to do with your right over how you should live your life. Process 2 - Gathering information
S: I am always alone. My parents don't love me anymore.
C: Why did you say they don't love you anymore?
Process 3- Suggesting a course of action
S: I wish I could unite my parents again.
C: Have you ever tried with them?
Process 4- Reasoning for the counselee
S: If I could not make my parents stay together, it would be the end of the world. C: You're still young; you still have lots of time to spend. Process 5- Directing the counselee to a topic that the counselor finds important S: Since I met difficulties in settling my accounts in school, my parents don't want to talk to me. C: Let's go to your problem in school because I know that is big problem for you. Process 6- Giving feedback to counselee
S: My dad is not yet ready to stay with my mom. Perhaps I have to wait for the right time to discuss this with him. C: Yeah, I 'm very glad about your realization and you’re feeling more comfortable as far as your relationship with your dad is concerned. Process 7- Giving directives
S: I feel like going somewhere to forget the situation between my dad and mom. C: Can you manage? Try it.
The directives counselor assumes responsibility for directing the interview; he asks questions; he answers questions; he supplies information and suggestions. He may or may not tell the client what he thinks the client should do.
Non-Directive Counseling (Client-Centered)
The non-directive counseling method is generally assumed to differ from the directive method mainly in the degree to which the counselor lends direction to the...