Types of Companies

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1.1 INTRODUCTION
Industrial has revolution led to the emergence of large scale business organizations. These organization require big investments and the risk involved is very high. Limited resources and unlimited liability of partners are two important limitations of partnerships of partnerships in undertaking big business. Joint Stock Company form of business organization has become extremely popular as it provides a solution to (2)

overcome the limitations of partnership business. The Multinational companies like Coca-Cola and, General Motors have their investors and customers spread throughout the world. The giant Indian Companies may include the names like Reliance, Talco Bajaj Auto, Infosys Technologies, Hindustan Lever Ltd., Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd., and Larsen and Tubro etc.

1.2 MEANING OF COMPANY
Section 3 (1) (i) of the Companies Act, 1956 defines a company as “a company formed and registered under this Act or an existing company”. Section 3(1) (ii) Of the act states that “an existing company means a company formed and registered under any of the previous companies laws”. This definition does not reveal the distinctive characteristics of a company . According to Chief Justice Marshall of USA, “A company is a person, artificial, invisible, intangible, and existing only in the contemplation of the law. Being a mere creature of law, it possesses only those properties which the character of its creation of its creation confers upon it either expressly or as incidental to its very existence”.

Another comprehensive and clear definition of a company is given by Lord Justice Lindley, “A company is meant an association of many persons who contribute money or money’s worth to a common stock and employ it in some trade or business, and who share the profit and loss (as the case may be) arising there from. The common stock contributed is denoted in money and is the capital of the company. The persons who contribute it, or to whom it belongs, are members. The proportion of capital to which each member is entitled is his share. Shares are always transferable although the right to transfer them is often more or less restricted”.

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According to Haney, “Joint Stock Company is a voluntary association of individuals for profit, having a capital divided into transferable shares. The ownership of which is the condition of membership”.

From the above definitions, it can be concluded that a company is registered association which is an artificial legal person, having an independent legal, entity with a perpetual succession, a common seal for its signatures, a common capital comprised of transferable shares and carrying limited liability.

1.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF A COMPANY
The main characteristics of a company are :
1. Incorporated association. A company is created when it is registered under the Companies Act. It comes into being from the date mentioned in the certificate of incorporation. It may be noted in this connection that Section 11 provides that an association of more than ten persons carrying on business in banking or an association or more than twenty persons carrying on any other type of business must be registered under the Companies Act and is deemed to be an illegal association, if it is not so registered.

For forming a public company at least seven persons and for a private company at least two persons are persons are required. These persons will subscribe their names to the Memorandum of association and also comply with other legal requirements of the Act in respect of registration to form and incorporate a company, with or without limited liability [Sec 12 (1)]

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2. Artificial legal person. A company is an artificial person. Negatively speaking, it is not a natural person. It exists in the eyes of the law and cannot act on its own. It has to act through a board of directors elected by shareholders. It was rightly pointed out in Bates V Standard Land Co. that : “The board of directors are the brains and...
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