types of communication

Topics: Communication, Consensus decision-making, Management Pages: 32 (8229 words) Published: February 19, 2014

1. Introduction
1.1 Communication
Communication is the exchange of ideas, opinions and information through written or spoken words, symbols or actions.“Any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person information about that person’s needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, it may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes.”Communication is a dialogue, not a monologue. In fact, communication is more concerned with a dual listening process. For communication to be effective, the message must mean the same thing to both the sender and the receiver. 1.2 Business Communication

Business Communication is any communication used to promote a product, service, or organization – with the objective of making sale. In business communication, message is conveyed through various channels of communication including internet, print (publications), radio, television, outdoor, and word of mouth. In business, communication is considered core among business, interpersonal skills and etiquette. 1.3 Communication process

The process of sending a message in such a way that the message received is as close in meaning as possible to the message intended. Steps in the Communication Process
Deciding to transmit a fact, idea, opinion, or other information to the receiver. Encoding the meaning into a form appropriate to the situation. Transmission through the appropriate
channel or medium.
Decoding the message back into a
form that has meaning to the
receiver.
“Noise” is anything disrupting

Fig: The communication process.

2. Types of Business Communication

2.1 Downward Communication

The word “downward” refers to the flow which is directed from higher to a lower level. If so, downward communication is said to move from one level of an organization or a group to a lower level. Thus, downward communication is a process of sending a message from a superior to a subordinate. The Managing Director of a public limited company, for example, sending a message to the departmental heads; or a manager issuing instructions to an assistant manager; or a supervisor giving directions to the workers, all are examples of downward communications. Through downward communication, management tries to carry out its basic functions of planning, organizing, directing and controlling. Major types of information sent through downward communication include – job instructions, organizational procedures and practices, feedback to the subordinates about their performance, making the objectives known and the delegation of authority clear to the lower levels of management. This type of communication is also known as top-down communication.

2.1.1 Objectives of Downward Communication

The overall purpose of downward communication is to supply the subordinates with relevant information, instruction and necessary explanation. Managers at different levels within the organization send such messages to the employhees they manage. Downward communication is, therefore, mostly needed to facilitate the achievement of target results. There are many objectives behind downward communication. These are:

a) To Direct:
To give specific directives to the subordinates, downward communication is used. b) To Interpret:
With the help of downward communication, organizational objectives and policies do explained to the lower level employees in order to give them complete understand.

c) To Give Feedback of Performance Appraisal:
Supervisors evaluate the work performed by the employees they supervise. Downward communication is used to inform the employees of their evaluation. d) To Define Responsibility and Delegate Authority:

Every work responsibility of each employee should be clearly defined and thereafter the employees are to be informed of their...
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