The History of Bicycle Industry
Baron Von Drais invents the "running machine" or Laufmaschine. Patented the following year. Known in various forms as : Draisine, Draisienne, Velocipede. English version was the Hobby Horse (Denis Johnson). All have two, in-line wheels and the ability to steer.
Louis Gompertz adds a hand-driven, ratchet mechanism to the front wheel of a Hobby Horse but the innovation, as with Drais' was never really followed up.
Kirkpatrick Macmillan is traditionally credited with a machine in which power was supplied to the back wheel via rods connected to treadle-type pedals. Thomas McCall marketed copies; an 1845 version is in the Dumfries Museum. It is questionable whether significant progress resulted from either.
Alexandre Lefebvre is credited with a rear-drive machine; he took it to America twenty years later and it still exists in the "History San Jose" museum (the earliest extant bicycle?).
R. W. Thompson invents the pneumatic tire but with no commercial follow-up.
Gavin Dalzell builds a two-wheeled hobbyhorse with a treadle-drive, possibly copied from the Macmillan design.
Willard Sawyer exhibits his four-wheeled, crank-driven vehicle at the Great Exhibition and subsequently becomes established as a Velocipede manufacturer.
J. Townsend Trench documents his purchase of a velocipede from the Michaux family. Possibly the first record of a "production" front wheel, pedal-driven bicycle (but note that it was not presented untill 1895). This style became known as the "Boneshaker". Historians still debate the claim of Pierre Lallement that he had previously invented the first pedal-driven machine.
Lallement, now in the USA, gets the backing of an investor, James Carroll, and their patent application is granted; probably the world's first public record of the pedal-powered two-wheeler.
James Starley products the "Ariel" High Wheeler (aka "Ordinary" or "Penny Farthing"). Later versions had front wheel sizes of upto 5 feet.
W. H. J. Grout patents the radially spoked, nipple adjusted bicycle wheel (unlike prior load-bearing wheels). Some credit Meyer with this design two years previosly.
Friedrich Fischer first mass-produces steel ball bearings, patented by Jules Suriray in 1869.
Browett and Harrison patent an early caliper brake.
James Starley patent a differential gear; probably the first for a bicycle but the principle was not new.
Internal Hub Gearings
Scott and Phillott patent the first practicable epicyclic change-speed gear fitted into the hub of a front-driving bicycle.
Grout patents a folding High Wheeler, the first "portable" bicycle.
Henry J. Lawson patents a rear wheel, chain-driven safety bicycle, the "Bicyclette" (his earlier models were lever driven).
Thomas Humber adapts the block chain for use with his range of bicycles.
John Kemp Starley (James Starley's nephew) markets the revolutionary Safety Bicycle (the "Rover") with a chain/rear-sprocket drive and tangentially-spoked, similar sized wheels. Includes many of the major features of modern bicycles.
The Mannessman brothers are credited with the invention of the process to manufacture seamless steel tubing.
Commercial development of the pneumatic bicycle tire by Dr. John Boyd Dunlop.
Cycles Aluminium becomes one of the earliest manufacturers of an aluminium bicycle.
E. H. Hodgkinson patents a 3-speed...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document