Type 1. Saving Banks
Saving banks are established to create saving habit among the people. These banks are helpful for salaried people and low income groups. The deposits collected from customers are invested in bonds, securities, etc. At present most of the commercial banks carry the functions of savings banks. Postal department also performs the functions of saving bank.
[pic]Type 2. Commercial Banks
Commercial banks are established with an objective to help businessmen. These banks collect money from general public and give short-term loans to businessmen by way of cash credits, overdrafts, etc. Commercial banks provide various services like collecting cheques, bill of exchange, remittance money from one place to another place. In India, commercial banks are established under Companies Act, 1956. In 1969, 14 commercial banks were nationalised by Government of India. The policies regarding deposits, loans, rate of interest, etc. of these banks are controlled by the Central Bank.
[pic]Type 3. Industrial Banks / Development Banks
Industrial / Development banks collect cash by issuing shares & debentures and providing long-term loans to industries. The main objective of these banks is to provide long-term loans for expansion and modernisation of industries. In India such banks are established on a large scale after independence. They are Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI), Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI) and Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI).
[pic]Type 4. Land Mortgage / Land Development Banks
Land Mortgage or Land Development banks are also known as Agricultural Banks because these are formed to finance agricultural sector. They also help in land development. In India, Government has come forward to assist these banks. The Government has guaranteed the debentures issued by such banks. There is a great risk involved in the financing of agriculture and...