An advertising agency or ad agency is a service business dedicated to creating, planning and handling advertising (and sometimes other forms of promotion) for its clients. An ad agency is independent from the client and provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the client's products or services. An agency can also handle overall marketing and branding strategies and sales promotions for its clients.
Typical ad agency clients include businesses and corporations, non-profit organizations and government agencies. Agencies may be hired to produce an advertising campaign.
2 Types of advertising agencies
2.1 Generalized Advertising Agencies
2.2 Specialist Advertising Agencies
2.3 In-House Advertising Agencies
2.4 Interactive agencies
2.5 Search engine agencies
2.6 Social media agencies
2.7 Healthcare communications agencies
2.8 Medical education agencies
2.9 Other agencies
3 Agency departments
3.1 Creative department
3.2 Account services
3.3 Media services
3.5 Other departments and personnel
4 See also
6 External links
 HistoryThe first acknowledged advertising agency was William Taylor in 1786, another agency was started by James 'Jem' White in Fleet Street, London in 1800, and eventually evolved into White Bull Holmes a recruitment advertising agency, that went out of business in the late 1980s. In 1812 George Reynell, an officer at the London Gazette, set up another of the early advertising agencies also in London. This remained a family business until 1993, as 'Reynell & Son', and is now part of the TMP Worldwide agency (UK and Ireland) under the brand TMP Reynell. Another early agency that traded until recently ,was founded by Charles Barker, and the firm he established traded as 'Barkers' until 2009 when it went into Administration.
Volney B. Palmer opened the first American advertising agency, in Philadelphia in 1850. This agency placed ads produced by its clients in various newspapers
produce "photographs, ambrotypes and daguerreotypes." His ads were the first whose typeface and fonts were distinct from the text of the publication and from that of other advertisements. At that time all newspaper ads were set in agate and only agate. His use of larger distinctive fonts caused a sensation. Later that same year Robert Bonner ran the first full-page ad in a newspaper.
In 1864, William James Carlton began selling advertising space in religious magazines. James Walter Thompson joined this firm in 1868. Thompson rapidly became their best salesman, purchasing the company in 1877 and renaming it the James Walter Thompson Company, which today is the oldest American advertising agency. Realizing that he could sell more space if the company provided the service of developing content for advertisers, Thompson hired writers and artists to form the first known Creative Department in an advertising agency. He is credited as the "father of modern magazine advertising" in the US.
 Types of advertising agenciesAd agencies come in all sizes and include everything from one or two-person shops (which rely mostly on freelance talent to perform most functions), small to medium sized agencies, large independents such as SMART and multi-national, multi-agency conglomerates such as Omnicom Group, WPP Group, Publicis, Interpublic Group of Companies and Havas.
 Generalized Advertising AgenciesCreative agencies specialize in "creative" or design-based business models: their basic interest is in the creation of the advertisement or branding. Other ("full-service") agencies offer design in conjunction with media buying. Media agencies concentrate on media buying. (In the 1990s, media and creative were often unbundled in the interests of economies of scale in buying media.)
The client who chooses to use a design only based advertising agency must assume some of the advertising purchasing. These are...
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