Types and significance of evaluation of training program
Training is vital for any and every organization. With the changing socio-economic and technological relevance of training, the definitions, scope, methods and evaluation of training program have also changed. One of the earlier classic definitions of training is ‘bringing lasting improvement in skills in jobs’. The present day definitions take a multi-dimensional perspective enveloping the needs of individuals, teams, organizations and the society. The steps in the training program development are planning, programme implementation, and programme evaluation and follow-up. The evaluation of any training system helps measure the’ knowledge gap’, what is defined by Riech as ‘the gap between what the trainer teaches and what the trainee learns’. Evaluations help to measure Reich’s gap by determining the value and effectiveness of a learning programme. It uses assessment and validation tools to provide data for the evaluation. Evaluation of training systems, programmes or courses tends to be a demand of a social, institutional or economic nature. A training program is not complete until you have evaluated methods and results. A key to obtaining consistent success with training programs is to have a systematic approach to measurement and evaluation. Training Evaluation Approach
Evaluation methods should be determined based on the goals of the training process and should meet the demands of the various stakeholders involved. Every organization has multiple stakeholders and not everyone within the organization has the same information needs. Typically, organizational stakeholder groups include the training department, employees and business units. Their information requirements fall into two categories: whether the competencies have been learned and whether the learning has been applied toward improved performance.
* Goldstein (1993) defines evaluation as the “systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information necessary to make effective decisions related to selection, adoption, value and modification of various instructional activities”. * Kirkpatrick (1996) defines evaluation as determination of the effectiveness of a training programme. Evaluation of training as any attempt to obtain information on the effects of a training programme, and to assess the value of the training in the light of that information. * According to Van Dyk et al. (1997), definitions of evaluation have several implications: • Evaluation is an ongoing process. It is not done at the end of course only. • The evaluation process is directed towards a specific goal and objectives. • Evaluation requires the use of accurate and appropriate measuring instruments to collect information for decision making. • Evaluation is a form of quality control.
• Evaluation is not only concerned with the evaluation of students but with the wider training system as a whole.
TYPES OF EVALUATION
1) Formation evaluation
Formative evaluation Provides ongoing feedback to the curriculum designers and developers to ensure that what is being created really meets the needs of the intended audience. Formative Evaluation may be defined as "any combination of measurements obtained and judgments made before or during the implementation of materials, methods, or programs to control, assure or improve the quality of program performance or delivery." * It answers such questions as, "Are the goals and objectives suitable for the intended audience?" "Are the methods and materials appropriate to the event?" "Can the event be easily replicated?" Formative evaluation furnishes information for program developers and implementers. * It helps determine program planning and implementation activities in terms of (1) target population, (2) program organization, and (3) program location and timing. * It provides "short-loop" feedback about the quality and...