(General Psychosocial Review of Turkish Migrants in Germany)
Warsaw School of Social Sciences and Humanities
Physical movement of people in a particular time and geographic space expresses the phenomena of migration which emerged in human societies since ancient times is very characteristic and typical of a social concept. Phenomena of migration hardly influences the social structure, public life and culture.(Şahin, 2001) It brings with itself so important changes and transformations. As a result of these changes and transformations, migration phenomena also expresses interactions between the cultures and adaptation process. This essay will discuss two main questions. Fist question is “ Being an immigrant cause what kind of psychological problems? “, second one is “ Why integration of Turks to German culture mention as a total failure?”
Before I tackle the psychosocial problem of Turkish immigrant in Germany, I would like to briefly review the history of this mass international migration movement from Turkey to Germany. European countries’ economies and infrastructure were serious damaged by the II World War and Germany was the one who influenced in the worst way. After the II World War there was a huge need of labor force in Germany, especially for popping up their economy.(Adigüzel, 2011) For them ensuring the economic growth was the only solution for the reduce the bad and damage effect of the war. Population of the new generations was not enough to fill this need so German Government started to adopt ‘temporary’ guest workers so called: “Gastarbeiter” all over the Europe. Between the 1955 and 1960 Germany had already adopted workers from Italy, Spain and Greece. In 1961 Turkey signed a bilateral labour recruitment agreement with Germany. Later on Turkey signed similar intergovernmental contracts for labour recruitment, such as Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, France and Sweden. It was the time when immigration has begun from Turkey to Europe. Germany became the favorite destination for Turkish workers. After signing the agreement between Germany and Turkey, 2100 Turkish workers went to Germany in the year of 1961. (Meier-Braun; 2002:40). Most intense years of emigration to Germany from Turkey was between 1961 to 1973 . In 1973 when Germany stopped adopt workers from other countries, lots of guest workers decided to stay in Germany because of financial concerns. German Government tried to stop and take it under control of this migration with using lots of different strategies. For example since 1980 German Government use visa applications for Turkey. Despite of all the techniques that German Government used, number of the Turkish immigrants in Germany keep increase until today. From the 1961 to present this immigration still continue both legal and illegal ways. As a conclusion of this brief historical referring, after 1973 migration did not end it just change form such as, family reunification or marriages with Germany citizens etc. (Böcker, 1995; İçduygu, 1996: in Sert, İçduygu, 2010).
During last 50 years “migration of workers to abroad” is a social, cultural, financial, political phenomena and also so interesting process for Turkish society and scientists. This migration movement which concentrated to Germany contains so much complicated problems for both Turkish and German societies. If we take in consideration of difficulties which Turkish people had/still have or the things which they could/can learn and which they could not/can not learn, makes this problems more complex.
First of all, the phenomenon of migration generates extensively changes in the worker’s family structures and changes in the family members social status. During this extensive conversion of the family, changes in the social environment reveals important adaptation problems. It was difficult for Turkish immigrants who...