Freud is the founder of psychoanalysis. He believed an individual’s personality is rooted in the dynamics of our unconscious which consists of all thoughts, ideas, and feelings that we as humans are unaware of. According to Freud, the primary unconscious drives that determine human behavior are sexual and aggressive instincts. Personality is compromised of three structures. The id is the first structure. It is said to be the only structure that is present at birth. It functions in the unconscious and represents the pleasure principle in which it tries to obtain immediate pleasure and avoid pain. The ego, which is the second structure, is the id’s connection to the real world. It controls activities of thinking and reasoning and also functions according to the reality principle. The ego tries to delay satisfying the id’s needs until it can carefully and efficiently do so in the real world. The superego is the third structure and acts like a conscience. It helps a person behave in society. The superego contrasts the ego’s actions with an ego ideal of perfection. According to Freud, when the ego is unable to control impulses from the id in a way that is acceptable to the superego, it experiences anxiety and may resort to using defense mechanisms to reduce the discomfort caused by the anxiety. The self-deceptive techniques used to reduce anxiety are denial, repression, projection, identification, regression, intellectualization, reaction formation, displacement, and sublimation. Freud also contributed to the idea of how personality develops. He determined how an individual develops from birth to adult. This is where libido and fixation is described as being key in healthy development. There are five developmental stages which consist of oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. The Oedipus or Electra complex is developed during the phallic stage and presents problems such as a strong attachment to a parent of the opposite gender and possibly jealousy of a parent of the same gender (Morris, Maisto, 2002).
Jung believed that the unconscious consists of two different parts. The first is the personal unconscious which consists of an individual’s repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas. The other part is the collective unconscious which is compromised of many memories and behavior patterns that is thought to come from previous generations. Archetypes are thought forms that the human mind has developed over time. These thoughts give existence to mental or mythological images. The persona is one of the many archetypes. According to Jung, it is the part of our personality that other people know us by. Two other archetypes are the anima which is the expression of female traits in a man, and the animus which is the expression of male traits in a woman. Jung believed that there are two attitudes that people express to the world. The first are extroverts which are interested in other people and the world at large. Introverts are more concerned with their own private worlds. Another division performed by Jung was categorizing people as rational and irrational individuals. Rational individuals control their behavior by thinking and feeling and irrational people base their actions on awareness (Morris, Maisto, 2002).
Rogers believed that people develop their personalities in the benefit of positive goals. The biological push to become what we are able to become is called the actualizing tendency. As humans trying to realize our biological potential, we attempt to fulfill our conscious sense of who we are as a person. Rogers called this theory of personal development the self-actualizing tendency. A totally functioning person is an individual with a self-concept that carefully matches his or her natural potentials. Fully functioning people are usually raised with the experience of being valued by other people despite their emotions, attitudes, and behaviors. Quite...