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C.S.E-Mains 1977

ESSAY - 1977
Q. Write essays on any two of the following topics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. “More than the means of production science transforms the producer himself”. Indian science should be rooted to the Indian soil. Is ecology relevant to India? Education as an avenue of social mobility. Modernization as a contemporary myth. Is consumer protection possible in India? The concept of a welfare state. Role and responsibilities of the judiciary in a Parliamentary democracy. Democracy and the leadership principle. India’s composite culture.

C.S.E-Mains 1977

1. Make a précis of the following passage in about 340 words. The précis should be in your own words. It should be written on the special sheets provided, which should be fastened securely inside the answer-book. N.B. – You will be penalized if your précis is much longer or shorter than the length prescribed. New things are more evident in the social history of the Western countries than the decline of interest in inequality as an economic issue. This has been particularly true in the United States It is only necessary to observe that for some 15 years no serious effort has been made to alter the present distribution of income. The principal public device for redistribution income is the progressive income-tax. Not since the Second World War has there been a major effort of modify this tax in the interest of grater equality. Loopholes have been opened and a few closed. Liberal has not, however, proposed any important new steps to make the tax more progressive and hence more egalitarian. The present nominal surtax rates put into effect during the was a temporary measure are now regarded as permanent. As a part of the present compromise, liberals do not seek to make current taxes more progressive. They would, however, rally in opposition to any general reduction in rates on the higher income brackets. Those who believe the tax has gone too far in enforcing equality are more vocal But not even a conservative administration such as that of President Eisenhower thought it wise to tackle the question of surtax reduction. Apart from the income-tax almost no legislation has been enacted or even discussed in recent years which have as its main aim the reduction of inequality. Fifty years ago, at the height of the debate over socialism and capitalism, it would have been hard to imagine there was any other issue. The decline in concern for inequality cannot be explained by the triumph of equality. Although this is suggested in the conventional utterances of conservatives and the complaints of businessmen, inequality in the U.S. is still great. In 1955 the highest ten per cent of the population averaged as income 27 times as much as the lowest ten per cent. Present laws are also notably favorable to the person who has wealth as oppose to the individual who is only earning it. Yeats all this does not arouse the kind of animosity which leads readily to agitation and action. The first reason why inequality has faded as an issue is that it has not been showing the expected tendency to get worse. It no longer seems likely that the ownership of the tangible assets of the republic will be concentrated in a few hands. There has actually been a modest reduction in the disparity. While taxes have restrained the concentration of income at the top, full employment and upward pressure on wages have increased well-being at the bottom. In 1928 the 5 per cent with the highest income received over a third of all income; by 1946 their share was only about 18 per cent. The war and post war years were a time of rapid improvement for those in the lower bracket. Between 1941 and 1950 the lowest fifth had a 42 percent increase in income; the highest fifth had only an 8 per cent increase. Emulation and envy have always played a large role in the economist’s view of human motivation. But every operates only as...
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