Stunning landscapes, divine architectures, and an exceptional appetite of wine that make a very gorgeous dream destination – this is how I would describe the Italian region called Tuscany. Italy is one of the world’s most important wine producers. It is the nestling ground to some of the best wines that the world’s palates have ever tasted. And of all of Italian premier wine makers, Tuscany is probably the home to very well known wine regions such as Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, and Brunello di Montalcino. These are the regions that produce the best and most prestigious wines that are being sold worldwide. Tuscany is very rich in tradition, and they use that advantage while making use of the rising international wine varieties that have come to settle in the region.
Tuscany (Toscana in Italian) is the region situated in central Italy. Its neighbors are Emilia-Romagna to the north, Marche and Umbria to the east, Lazio to the south, and Liguria to the northwest. In addition, the entire western side is on the Tyrrhenian Sea, a part of the Mediterranean Sea. The region covers an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometers with the population of approximately 3.8 million inhabitants. According to the administrative division, Tuscany is divided into 10 provinces. While Grosetto is the largest province in terms of area (4,504 square kilometers), Florence is the largest one in terms of population (983,073 people). Here comes the provinces listed by the highest population density: Prato (674.8 inhabitants/km2), Pistoia, Florence, Livorno, Lucca, Massa and Carrara, Pisa, Areezzo, Siena, and Grosseto.
The gorgeous Tuscany encompasses a mixed topography, comprising of coastal plains, rolling hills, and modest mountains. However, about 70% of the terrain is hilly. In addition, hill is the main potential place to plant vineyards. In fact, the majority of Tuscan vineyards are on the rolling hills at altitudes from 150 to 500 meters. In this case, the hills serve as a tempering affect on summertime heat as well as increase the diurnal temperature variation. This helps grapes maintain their balance of sugar and acidity as well as their aromatic qualities. 3.2. Climate
To be precise, Tuscan climate varies north to south and coast to mainland. Nevertheless, generally, Tuscany experiences Mediterranean climate. It was the type with which viniculture first flourished. In terms of temperature, there are two main seasons: warm summer and mild winter. The average temperature is about 250C during the warmest month and 100C in the coolest one. The slight seasonal change creates long grapevine growing seasons. Meanwhile, the not-too-hot summer prevent grapes from dry out and become overripe. About precipitation, it’s sunny and dry in the summer while rainy and wet in the winter. In fact, the rainfall in the summertime accounts for only 10% of that in the whole year. This protects the grapes against bloating with water during the growing season in summer. The swell may lead to thin and diluted wine later. Besides, the grapes do not lose their balance between sugar and acid as well as winemakers do not have to face heavy precipitation during harvest in September. 3.3. Soil
Soil is the mandatory factor in viniculture. Although it is true that vine stalks can grow almost everywhere, winemakers need to consider the soil options seriously in order to produce quality wines that capture the essence of surrounding environment. There are two primary features related to Tuscan soil. First of all, a wide range of soil (clay, limestone, sandstone, schist, volcanic soil, etc.) offers a great diversity of grape types and wines. Secondly, the Tuscan soil is poor in local producers’ opinion. Surprisingly, Tuscany is still one of the most dynamic wine regions in Italy and the world due to the aim at quality rather than quantity.
3. Grape varieties