Turkish Migrations and Imperial Expansion
Nomadic societies in central Asia were made to adapt accordingly due to the harsh terrain and the low average rain fall. For these reasons, it was not easy for the nomadic people. They were unable to cultivate and grow crops which turned them into migrators. The nomadic people drove their herds and flocks across the land following migratory cycles to areas with abundant grass and vegetation to maintain livestock. They lived mainly off of the meat and milk of their herds and used the hides and fur for clothing and shelter. They would also use the bones for tools and the dung for fuel. Nomads were known for being traders. Because of their familiarity with the lands of central Asia, they would be suitable to run caravans that would link settled societies from China to the Mediterranean. Nomadic peoples generally based society around two groups of people: noble and commoners. Charismatic people won recognition and nobles. Nomad religion would be based around shamans who were believed to have supernatural powers to communicate with the gods and spirits. By the sixth century C.E. many turks had converted to Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity or Manichaeaism. The strengths of the turks military have been greatly admired for many years after their ruling. Generally under leadership by a "khan" (ruler), they in fact, were ruled indirectly through leaders of allied tribes. Nomadic warriors had superior equestrian skills. Even while riding on the back of their galloping horses, they had deadly accuracy with bow and arrows. Few armies were able to resist the mobility and discipline of the well organized nomadic warriors.
During the late twelfth century, Temujin, (Chinggis Khan) had made an alliance with a main Mongol leader. Chinggis had also mastered diplomacy and gained the trust and honor of his troops. They would go anywhere and do anything that he asked. Over time, he had...