Tuberculosis and Sociology

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1.1 Introduction:
The modern era of tuberculosis (TB) began in the mid 1980s. At that time it was realised that tuberculosis had not only ceased to decline in many developed countries, notably the USA, but was actually increasing. This forced health services to look more closely at the problem of tuberculosis. It was realised that the disease was out of control across most of the poorest regions of the world, especially Central Africa and South Asia. It was for this reason that in 1993 the WHO took the unique step of declaring tuberculosis to be a world emergency. The TB burden is especially onerous in those impoverished countries least able to cope. TB is primarily a disease of the poor, found much more frequently in populations of the lowest socioeconomic strata. Transmission of the disease occurs much more readily in conditions of overcrowding and poor ventilation and has been associated with other health risks of poverty such as poor nutrition.  The relationship between TB and poverty not only increases susceptibility for contracting the disease, but also influences the ability of those afflicted to cope with the disease, and the way most societies deal with TB.  1.2 Research Objectives:

The objectives of the research have been enumerated as follows: * Causes of the widespread disease.
* Social stigma the affected people have gone through.
* Role of awareness campaigns.
* Analysis and conclusion.

1.3 Research Methodology:
The research method used is doctrinal. The researchers have utilized the resources of National Law University, Delhi and articles from various legal databases and from other online sources. The researchers have also used various books and law journals. 1.4 Research Scheme:

The researcher has dealt with the social consequences and the affects of the disease tuberculosis among the poor people. The researcher in the first chapter has talked about the causes of the spread this disease enumerating various aspects. Further in the next chapter she has discussed about the social stigma and social expulsion faced by the patients suffering from tuberculosis. In the third chapter the researcher has dealt with the role of awareness campaigns and the incentives taken by NGOs as well as the governmental organisations in changing the mindset of the people. The final chapter deals with the conclusion in which is based on the research objectives, the researcher has also made some recommendations for the same.

 Several factors contributed to this rapid and widespread transmission of tuberculosis. These included the lack of previous exposure to the disease, malnutrition and/or changes in diet, a shift from a semi-nomadic to a sedentary lifestyle, overcrowding in governmental housing and schools, increased and prolonged contact with non-natives, debilitation by other diseases and epidemics, poor sanitation, lack of medical care, alcoholism, and cultural and psychological anomie. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a slender, rod shaped bacteria, which is difficult to grow in culture, making diagnosis slower. This bacterium does not give out any direct toxins but causes cell damage and destruction by triggering a hypersensitivity reaction in tissues. Tuberculosis is not an individual dilemma but a social problem. The society as a whole has to face the consequences of this disease. The social disapproval of the poor patients and ignorance of the people results in further exacerbating the problem as the patients in fear don’t undergo proper medical examination and also are negligent in taking proper medicines. The disease also spreads in areas of poverty, war and malnourishment.

2.1 The Increase of the World's Poor:
The association between poverty and tuberculosis is well established. Even within the developed world the highest rates of disease are seen in the poorest sections of the community. As the world...
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