Beer–Lambert law, Chemical equilibrium, Stoichiometry

Chemistry 12

Santa Monica College

Determination of Kc for a Complex Ion Formation
• • Find the value of the equilibrium constant for formation of FeSCN2+ by using the visible light absorption of the complex ion. Confirm the stoichiometry of the reaction.

In the study of chemical reactions, chemistry students first study reactions that go to completion. Inherent in these familiar problems—such as calculation of theoretical yield, limiting reactant, and percent yield—is the assumption that the reaction can consume all of one or more reactants to produce products. In fact, most reactions do not behave this way. Instead, reactions reach a state where, after mixing the reactants, a stable mixture of reactants and products is produced. This mixture is called the equilibrium state; at this point, chemical reaction occurs in both directions at equal rates. Therefore, once the equilibrium state has been reached, no further change occurs in the concentrations of reactants and products. The equilibrium constant, K, is used to quantify the equilibrium state. The expression for the equilibrium constant for a reaction is determined by examining the balanced chemical equation. For a reaction involving aqueous reactants and products, the equilibrium constant is expressed as a ratio between reactant and product concentrations, where each term is raised to the power of its reaction coefficient: aA (aq) + bB (aq) ! cC (aq) + dD (aq)

Kc =

[C] [D] [A] a [B] b




When an equilibrium constant is expressed in terms of molar concentrations, the equilibrium constant is referred to as Kc. The value of this constant at equilibrium is always the same at a ! given temperature, regardless of the initial reaction concentrations. Whether the reactants are mixed in their exact stoichiometric ratios or one reactant is initially present in large excess, the ratio described by the equilibrium constant expression will be achieved once the...
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