Ideological and practical significances
After Harry Truman proposed the idea of a European Recovery Plan to the Congress, it was taken further by General Marshall. General Marshall joined office in January 1947 as the Secretary of State. Soon after General Marshall met with Stalin and came back to realise the urgency for American actions in retaliation. Marshall proposed aid to Europe on a vast scale, and invited the Europeans to respond. The way the Marshall Plan was proposed, no one perceived it as an anti-Communist movement except Joseph Stalin. General Marshall made it clear that this European Recovery Programme was laid out to help both East and West Europe. However, Stalin did not believe this, and realised that American intentions were exactly opposite to what they were presented as. He thought that America was trying to grab every nation possible out of Soviet’s sphere of influence. Stalin himself denied Marshall aid for the Soviet Union and was now seeking to make sure that the Soviets maintained a strong influence with in the Eastern Bloc.
The Secret War
• Roosevelt’s Secret War: FDR and World War II Espionage by Joseph Persico • Roosevelt built espionage into the structure of American government • Discusses Roosevelt’s involvement in intelligence and espionage operations -FDR wanted to bomb Tokyo before Pearl Harbor
-A defector (someone who abandons one's country or cause in favor of an opposing one) from Hitler's inner circle reported directly to the Oval Office -Roosevelt knew before any other world leader of Hitler's plan to invade Russia -Roosevelt and Churchill concealed a disaster costing hundreds of British soldiers' lives in order to protect Ultra, the British code breaking secret -An unwitting Japanese diplomat provided the President with a direct pipeline into Hitler's councils • In addition also discusses to what extent Roosevelt was aware of the fate of Europe’s Jews prior to the...